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Cooperative development in Central Asia

Policy Studies on Rural Transition No. 2013-4







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    Book (series)
    Why Law Matters: Design Principles for Strengthening the Role of Forestry Legislation in Reducing Illegal Activities and Corrupt Practices 2002
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    The damage caused by illegal activities and corrupt practices in the world’s forests is a problem of enormous proportions. In many parts of the world, forest exploitation is dominated by rampant illegal harvesting, large-scale violation of trade regulations both domestically and internationally, fraudulent practices abetted or condoned by government officials and other destructive activities in violation of applicable laws. This paper is concerned with one facet of this complex problem–h ow important is legislation in the fight against destructive and corrupt forestry practices? In this short paper, we explore ways in which the drafting of forestry legislation – both in terms of the substantive content of law and the process by which it is written – can facilitate or obstruct efforts toreduce illegal activities. We propose several legislative design principles that have special relevance to the problems of corruption and law enforcement in the forestry sector.
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    Agriculture and Rural Cooperation Examples from Armenia, Georgia and Moldova
    Policy Studies on Rural Transition No. 2013-2
    2013
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    This paper was prepared within the “Cooperatives and their alternatives” component of the Agrarian Structures Initiative (ASI) which a regional program of FAO in Europe and Central Asia. This paper outlines some of the main issues influencing the development (or not) of farmer and rural organisations and presents in further detail the specific situation in Armenia, Georgia and Moldova. All three countries returned ownership of the majority of land to the rural population. This resulted in lar ge numbers of landowners managing relatively small and often dispersed land plots, but each of the three countries followed different paths to the development of agriculture and rural cooperation.
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    An overview of cooperatives in Israel
    Policy Studies on Rural Transition No. 2013-5
    2013
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    This paper was prepared within the “Cooperatives and their alternatives” component of the Agrarian Structures Initiative (ASI) which a regional program of FAO in Europe and Central Asia. From the late 1970's agricultural cooperatives in Israel have undergone many structural changes, becoming decentralized, individualized and specialized. Specifically, agricultural service cooperatives have become more flexible, vertically integrated and market oriented.

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