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Climate change impacts on crops in Sri Lanka










Amarasingha, R., Marambe, B., Suriyagoda, L., Punyawardena, R., Herath, H., Jayawardena, S., Jayakody, P. et al. 2021. Climate change impacts on crops in Sri Lanka. Rome, FAO. 




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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Borno state of Nigeria 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. The economy of Borno State is largely agrarian, with livestock husbandry, crop production and fishing on the Lake Chad dominating the economic activities of the population. Agriculture is mainly subsistent, with over 70% of her population depending on it directly or indirectly for their livelihoods. It provides the bulk of employment, income, food, and clothing for the rapidly growing population as well as supplying raw materials for agro-based industries. In Borno State, agriculture contributes up to 65% of the State’s Gross Domestic Product. Major cash crops are cotton, sesame and groundnuts while food crops include maize, yam, cassava, sorghum, cowpea, sorghum, millet, sweet potato and rice. Cattle and other livestock also have enormous value chain growth opportunities. With the recent insecurity that worst hit Borno state, food production (crop/animal and fishing) contribute to only 5.9 % of the food needs of the state. Virtually, 94% of food consumed in Borno are imported either in form of credit or gift from non-governmental organizations (NGOs), world food program (WFP), and civil societies among others. Declining soil fertility, climate change, low farm input lets, limited investment and poor infrastructure continue to hamper agricultural productivity and developments in the agricultural sector. The Borno state and indeed Nigeria has made efforts to enhance the resilience of the agriculture sector to climate change. The ongoing development of the Agricultural Promotion Policy (APP), the development of a National Policy on Climate Change and Response Strategy (NPCCRS) and the numerous plans, strategies and policy enabling environment are thought to set the State on the path towards sustainable development under the realities of a changing and varying climate. Some CSA practices (e.g. intercropping/multiple cropping, agroforestry, conservation agriculture etc.) are quite widespread and their proliferation has been facilitated by ease of adoption, and multiple benefits such as food, income diversification and improved resilience. Although there are a wide range of organizations conducting CSA-related work, most have focused largely on food security, environmental management and adaptation. There is the need to also integrate mitigation into the State’s climate-smart agriculture development efforts. In addition, off-farm services related to CSA need to be enhanced, including weather-smart and market-smart services. Funding for CSA is limited in the State and Nigeria in general, however there are opportunities to access and utilize international climate finance from sources such as the Green Climate Fund and Global Environment Facility and through readiness and capacity building programmes. At the national level, the National Agricultural Resilience in Nigeria, an arm of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development which targets reforestation, agriculture and livestock, is a useful mechanism for directing climate finance to CSA-related activities. Others are the fund set aside for the National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan for Climate Change in Nigeria (NASPA-CCN) which can benefit CSA-related activities the Borno State.
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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Guinea-Bissau 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. The agricultural sector is the main stay of the economy of Guinea-Bissau. In the absence of other resources, the sector despite being underdeveloped plays a leading role in supporting food security and job creation. Presently it contributes about 46% of national gross domestic product (GDP) with 84% of the population actively employed in primary production agriculture largely dominated by women. The majority of these farmer are small scale farmers farming on less than two hectare (2 ha). More than half (58%) of the total land in Guinea-Bissau is used for agriculture with area under forest heavily degraded by rapid exploitation. However, there are huge potentials for agricultural and forestry land including arable land estimated at about 1.5 million hectares. Farmers engage in the production of diverse crops and livestock such as cashew, rice (country’s staple food), sorghum, maize, etc largely cultivated by subsistence farmers. Women usually take up horticulture in the urban areas. Livestock production concentrated mainly in the north and east of the country is one of the main economic activities supporting food security and thousands of livelihoods. The country is divided into three agroecological zones based on ecological, climatic and demographic characteristics. Agriculture is mainly rainfed with very limited irrigated farming practised. About 82% of water withdrawn is used for agricultural purposes impelling a necessity for huge investments in irrigation to support agriculture production. The projected population growth and food demand is expected to have serious implications on food security with a potential to affect the agricultural sector. Despite the agro-forestry-pastoral potential and fisheries resources of Guinea-Bissau, many studies have shown that, the current food situation in the country is very precarious with poverty identified as the underlining cause. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the agricultural sector has been identified as very high with the country indicating reforestation as the major action for mitigating GHG emissions in its nationally determined contribution (NDC). Some challenges for the agricultural sector identified include (i) growth in population and food demand, (ii) land use change and natural resource depletion, (iii) limited marketing opportunities of agricultural commodities, and (iv) climate change and variability. Guinea-Bissau has a typical hot, humid monsoon-like tropical climate with two well-defined seasons. Agriculture is exposed to the effects of climate change with the country vulnerable to droughts, floods and sea level rise. The projected changes in temperature and rainfall are expected to have substantial impact on water resources which are already limited in their capacity to provide sufficient water for the agriculture sector. CSA technologies and practises present opportunities for addressing climate change challenges as well as for economic growth and development of the agriculture sector. Identified CSA practises in use in the country include (i) use of organic manure, (ii) use of weather information, (iii) water supply through drip irrigation, (iv) anti-erosion arrangement, (v) forage/fodder production, (vi) crop rotation, and (vii) rainwater harvesting through the Zai technique. There are a number of institutions and policies aimed at supporting and increasing agriculture productivity and advancing CSA practises in Guinea-Bissau. These include government, private sector, the national institute for agrarian research and general directorate of rural engineering with each most of the institutions profiles having CSA-related activities that deliver on all three pillars of CSA. The Ministry of environment which serves as the country’s UNFCCC focal point and Nationally Designated Authority to the Green Climate Fund (GCF), Adaptation fund, Climate Investment Fund and Global Environment Facility is responsible for the country’s climate change plans and policies. The food and agriculture organisation of the United Nations, the United Nations development programme and the international union for conservation of nature play instrumental roles in the promotion of sustainable agriculture and environmental sustainability. Most of the climate change and CSA-related funding have come from international sources with the UNDP being of great support through its signature programmes.
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    Trade, food security and climate change: conceptual linkages and policy implications 2018
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    Agriculture is not only a contributor to climate change, it will also be severely affected by climate change. Some effects of warming on crop yields, increased weed and pest occurrences and the effects of extreme events (e.g. floods, storms, droughts) on agricultural production are already observed. These are likely to intensify in the future leading to declines in agricultural production in many parts of the world, fluctuations in world market prices and an increased number of people at risk of food insecurity. The paper provides an overview of the complex relationships between climate change and agricultural trade, their connection with food security and possible policy implications. While there is no clear evidence on the net effect of trade on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, trade could play an important role in climate change adaptation for ensuring food security. High-latitude countries can expect productivity gains from climate change and could export a part of their surpluses to adversely affected countries. Low-latitude countries will be most severely affected in terms of production losses and may need to buffer these losses through increased food imports. Open markets could ease the exchange between food surplus and food deficit regions. Potential environmental externalities and financial and distributional impacts on developing countries would need to be further investigated and, if necessary, accounted for through targeted policy measures. The first domestic climate policies proposed by the countries as part of their obligations under the Paris Agreement suggest close interlinkages with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. They would need to be coordinated and reconciled at international level to promote climate change mitigation, while, at the same time, ensure the free tradability of food as a crucial adaptation measure to climate change

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