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Feeding people, protecting the planet

FAO and the GEF - partners in action










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    Book (series)
    Evaluation of FAO’s Country Programme in Lao People’s Democratic Republic 2009-2014 2015
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    ES1 The Country Programme Evaluation of FAO’s contribution in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) was conducted in 2015 with a view to contributing to the design and implementation of the next Country Programme Framework (CPF) starting in 2016. The purpose of the evaluation was to provide inputs to better orient FAO’s programme in Lao PDR, making it more relevant to the needs of the country, and identify potential areas for future support in line with FAO’s comparative advantages. It also aimed to assess FAO’s contributions to achieve its Global Goals, namely: i) eradication of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition; ii) elimination of poverty and the promotion of economic and social progress for all; and iii) sustainable management and utilization of natural resources at the country level. ES2 The evaluation was conducted by a team of five, led by an evaluation manager and supported by an evaluation analyst from the Office of Evaluation. It involved an extensive review of doc uments; interviews with over 160 stakeholders; and field research in the provinces of Khamouane, Savannakhet, Champassak, Swekong and Luang Namtha. The draft report was reviewed for accuracy by an external advisor, government partners and FAO’s Country Office. Following the principle of national ownership of development, the evaluation was conducted in a consultative manner with key Government partners through the formation of a Consultative Group comprising representatives from the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE) and the Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI) which chaired the group. The group was consulted in the formulation of the evaluation’s terms of reference, the composition of the team, the validity of the findings and conclusions in the draft report, and the organization of the stakeholder workshop. ES3 Over the past 20 years, Lao PDR has achieved significant economic growth and considerable advances in po verty reduction. With the expansion of agricultural trade, the country finds itself with a comparative advantage in a number of areas, including organic agriculture, niche products and geographic indications. These achievements, however, have not translated into significant reductions in Lao’s seriously high levels of food insecurity and undernutrition. Moreover, a lack of technical capacity and knowledge constrains the country’s ability to capitalize on its comparative advantages. ES4 Lao PDR i s very vulnerable to disasters, including weather events such as typhoons, flooding and drought, rodent and pest attacks, and animal disease epidemics. The most widespread of these are weather related risks and their frequency and intensity is likely to increase as a consequence of climate change. The additional pressure on the country’s natural resources severely strains the livelihood systems of the poorest: many households’ livelihoods continue to depend on natural resources, and the agricult ural sector employs 76 percent of the workforce.
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    Diversification perspectives of Guyana’s agrifood sector 2022
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    Guyana’s agrifood systems are facing an increasing level of risk: rising sea-levels are eroding its coastal area, where much of the agricultural activity is located; recent off-shore oil discoveries threaten to crowd-out non-oil sectors; and a dependency on a limited number of agricultural export commodities exposes the agricultural sector to price and market volatility. The diversification of agricultural production and exports has the potential to generate growth and increase the resilience of the agricultural sector. This study identifies Guyana’s diversification potential using comparative-advantage and export-sophistication metrics, which are combined for a proximity analysis based on Guyana’s production space. The objective is to identify a set of commodities with high export potential, which is in relative proximity to the current agrifood export basket. We find oil seeds, bovine meat, sunflower seed oil, fish flours (for animal feed), palm oil, fowl, cocoa beans, cocoa paste and sunflower seeds to be commodities with high export potential. These commodities share characteristics with the current agrifood export basket. This implies that expanding the exports of these goods will not be costly and is likely to promote economic development, agricultural sector growth and reduce risks associated with market concentration.
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    Book (series)
    Transition from low-value fish to compound feeds in marine cage farming in Asia 2012
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    This technical paper presents the findings of the FAO Regional Technical Cooperation Project TCP/RAS/3203 (D) 'Reducing the dependence on the utilization of trash fish/low-value fish as feed for aquaculture of marine finfish in the Asian Region,' which was implemented between 1 August 2008 and 31 July 2011 in China, Indonesia, Thailand and Viet Nam. It comprises the results of the project components, namely, farmers' participatory on-farm trials and a concurrent survey of farmers' perceptions concerning the use of two feed types and microcredit, environmental impact assessments of the use of both feed types, and a survey and analysis of the potential impacts of a change to pellet feeds on the livelihood prospects of fishers and suppliers of trash fish/low-value fish. An assessment of changes in the perceptions of farmers before and after the farm trials was undertaken, and a final regional stakeholders' workshop was conducted after the completion of all the project components. Incorp orated in the relevant parts of the report are the findings of a follow-up mission conducted 16 months after the end of the project. This mission was designed to confirm the findings, and assess further activities in line with the recommendations made at the final regional stakeholders' workshop. There were indications of the clear benefits to farmers as well as to the environment of adopting pellet feeds. Some indicators were not statistically significant, but present opportunities for addressi ng the constraints to the farmers' adoption of pellet feeds. A dominant finding was that the technical and economic performance from pellet feeds can be considerably enhanced by improving feed management, which was not a common attribute among the trial farmers. Furthermore, overall farm performance, whichever feed type was used, could be improved by introducing better management practices. The environmental impact assessments on the use of the two feed types suggested that good feed management and overall farming practices, and improving the quality of trash fish/low-value fish or pellets reduce the impacts of feed on the water beneath and around the culture sites. In addition, a good culture site where the carrying capacity is not stressed by aquaculture and non-aquaculture activities will considerably reduce the mortality risks from biotic and abiotic hazards. The technical and economic findings of the study were noted by the farmers, and contributed to the changes in their attitude s towards the pellet feeds from negative or neutral to positive. The recommendations of the project included providing the opportunities and enabling the farmers to translate their positive attitude into actual and sustained adoption of pellet feeds. Interventions that would promote the adoption of pellet feeds, among others, would include reasonable credit facility, species and growth-stage-specific feed formulations, farmers being associated to take advantage of economy of scale, and advice on better management practices. A standardized guide for a better management practice in cage mariculture was unanimously requested by the farmers. The impact on the livelihood of fishers and fish suppliers from losing the cage culture industry as a direct market for their trash fish/low-value fish was found to be minimal; they have robust coping mechanisms, which can be strengthened by policy and technical assistance from government.

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