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Protection sociale des artisans pêcheurs de la région méditerranéenne

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    Book (stand-alone)
    Social protection for small-scale fisheries in the Mediterranean region - A review 2019
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    Small-scale fisheries in the Mediterranean and Black Sea Region represents a key segment of the fishing sector, accounting for the greatest part of the fleet in the region and more than a half of the total workers employed in the sector. Fisher and fishworker households are exposed to different risks and vulnerabilities, including human and natural hazards. Furthermore, fisheries remain one of the most hazardous occupations with a very high fatality rate. Access to markets, financial, social and institutional services along with diversified and alternative livelihoods opportunities is often poor. Degrading fish stocks and aquatic ecosystems worsen this, along with pressure from climate change and climate-induced shocks and hazards and competition over resources with other sectors. Despite the key role social protection can have in reducing poverty and vulnerability, social protection often does not reach the small-scale fishing sector. The limited availability of accurate, robust and timely data on the sector, challenged by the high levels of informality, irregularity and seasonal nature of small-scale fishing activity, can result in the exclusion of small-scale fishers from laws governing formal employment, therefore, hindering their participation in national social protection systems. This study commissioned by the FAO and the GFCM reviewed available social protection systems in five countries in the Mediterranean (Albania, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia). It identifies the conditions and vulnerabilities of fishers, along with best practices in the provision of social protection programs and policies, and proposes recommendations to improve the coverage and effective delivery of social protection programmes for small-scale fishers in the region.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Social protection and sustainable natural resource management: initial findings and good practices from small-scale fisheries 2015
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    The paper explores how social protection interventions can be used to reduce the vulnerability and strengthen the resilience of households and communities who depend principally on renewable natural resources to sustain their livelihoods and food security, using the case of small-scale fisheries as an illustrative case. The paper identifies and reviews existing social protection policies, schemes and instruments with regard to their potential role in supporting the transition to sustainable natu ral resource management in fisheries, including the identification of universal and targeted social protection schemes and instruments that fisheries-dependent communities have access to, as well as how these groups are defined within the context of those policies. Special attention is given to social protection in the context of households’ disaster resilience. By providing an overview of the different sources of vulnerability and concrete examples of exclusion affecting actors in the fisheries sector, the document also increases awareness of the vulnerability of small-scale fishers and fish workers to natural and human-induced hazards as well as other social, economic or political risks. The paper shows that small-scale fishers and fishworkers are typically inadequately or totally unprotected. Very important is the recognition that social vulnerabilities are as significant as economic vulnerabilities, and that innovative interventions are needed to provide protections across the spec ific set of challenges that fishers face in each national and local context.
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    Book (series)
    Incidental catch of vulnerable species in Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries - A review 2021
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    Bycatch – a term widely used to refer to part of the catch unintentionally caught during a fishing operation, in addition to target species, and consisting of the discards and incidental catch of vulnerable species – is considered one of the most important threats to the profitability and sustainability of fisheries, as well as to the conservation of the marine environment and ecosystems. Understanding the bycatch issue and adopting effective measures in order to reduce bycatch rates are essential steps towards minimizing the impacts on vulnerable species and ensuring both a sustainable fisheries sector and healthy seas. In the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, the incidental catch of vulnerable species – namely seabirds, sea turtles, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and macrobenthic invertebrates – represents one of several challenges for the industrial, semi-industrial and small-scale fisheries that coexist in the region, as well as for the diverse and sensitive ecosystems impacted. Typically, data on this issue have been collected in an opportunistic manner and in ways that make comparisons difficult. The annual absolute values of incidental catch of vulnerable species are not available: studies cover only a small portion of the total fishing activity and often present important knowledge gaps for many types of fishing gear, countries and/or subregions, as well as on temporal scales, for example, to establish reliable baselines. The result is that little is known of the scope of the problem, despite incidental catch being a significant pressure on the populations of vulnerable species, as well as a concern for fishers.This regional review is an attempt to compile, in one single document, all available data and historical records on the incidental catch of vulnerable species in the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries, obtained from existing literature, databases and other grey sources, and collated in a standardized and comparable way. The main objective is to provide comprehensive baseline information, earmark the main data gaps, as well as identify the most impacting types of fishing gear by taxonomic group. This work is a reminder of the importance of standardized data collection and the need to have baseline information in order to support decision-making in the identification of appropriate bycatch mitigation techniques, thus enabling analysis of their effectiveness and comparison over time and space, as well as facilitating the implementation of relevant conservation and/or management measures at the national, subregional and regional levels.

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