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​Nitrogen and protein content measurement and nitrogen to protein conversion factors for dairy and soy protein-based foods: a systematic review and modelling analysis










Nitrogen and protein content measurement and nitrogen to protein conversion factors for dairy and soy protein-based foods: a systematic review and modelling analysis. Geneva: World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2019



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    The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meetings on Nutrition (‎JEMNU)‎: nitrogen to protein conversion factors for soy-based and milk-based ingredients used in infant formula and follow-up formula
    Report of the meeting of the expert panel, Geneva, Switzerland, 16–17 July 2019
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    The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meetings on Nutrition (JEMNU) was established in 2009 to provide scientific advice to the committees of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme (i.e. Codex) or Member Countries. JEMNU aims to provide relevant scientific advice in an independent, timely and cost-effective manner; therefore, JEMNU will be convened when there is a specific request from a Codex Committee or Member Countries. Currently being discussed at the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU) is the most appropriate nitrogen to protein conversion factor (or factors) to use in estimating protein content of soy-based ingredients and milk-based ingredients used in infant formulas and follow-up formulas. To provide guidance on this topic, at the 39th Session of CCNFSDU in 2017, the Committee requested that JEMNU be convened to review the evidence and develop evidence-informed guidance regarding nitrogen to protein conversion factors. FAO and WHO convened the first meeting of JEMNU in Geneva, Switzerland from 16 to 17 July 2019. The report of this first meeting provides a summary of the proceedings and includes the recommendations of the JEMNU experts on the most appropriate nitrogen to protein conversion factor (or factors) to use in estimating protein content of soy-based ingredients and milk-based ingredients used in infant formulas and follow-up formulas.
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    The labelling of food allergens in pre-packaged foods plays a key role in protecting food allergic individuals, as no preventative clinical treatment is currently available. The list of major foods and ingredients known to cause hypersensitivity was included into the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Packaged Foods (GSLPF) in 1999. There have been many scientific developments in the understanding of food allergens and their management since the original drafting of the GSLPF. Thus, in response to the request from Codex for scientific advice, including current evidence of consumer understanding of allergens, FAO and WHO convened a series of three expert meetings to provide scientific advice on this subject. The purpose of the first meeting of the Ad hoc Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Risk Assessment of Food Allergens was to review and validate the Codex priority allergen list through risk assessment. This report focuses on the deliberations and conclusions of this meeting.
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    Enterobacter sakazakii and Salmonella in Powdered Infant Formula: Meeting Report. Microbiological Risk Assessment Series (MRA) 10 2006
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    The 37th Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (2005) requested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to extend the scientific advice provided by the expert meeting on “Enterobacter sakazakii and other microorganisms in powdered infant formula” held in Geneva in 2004 (FAO/WHO, 2004). Accordingly, a technical meeting was convened on E. sakazakii and Salmonella in powdered infant formula (FAO, Rome, 16-20 January 2006) to consider any new scientific data and to evaluate and apply a quantitative risk assessment model for E. sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). This technical meeting also aimed to provide input to Codex for the revision of the Recommended International Code of Hygienic Practice for Foods for Infants and Children.

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