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Reforming and strengthening public agricultural extension and advisory service systems in smallholder farming










FAO. 2021. Reforming and strengthening public agricultural extension and advisory service systems in smallholder farming. Rome.



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    Book (stand-alone)
    Transforming public agricultural extension and advisory service systems in smallholder farming
    Status quo, gaps, way forward
    2022
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    Worldwide, extension and advisory service (EAS) systems have undergone reforms since the 1990s. However, the reforms of the last two decades in many countries have largely failed, as there has not been significant increase in accountability, efficiency, empowerment or impact. To fill this gap, this document, based on a systematic and extended literature review, delves into public EAS systems in developing countries, with a special focus on smallholder farming and institutional reforms. To begin with, it reviewed the status quo of global EAS systems in terms of institutional change and typologies and regional characteristics of EAS systems based on the analysis of 80 countries. This is followed by discussions on issues related to human resources, mandates, financial resources, infrastructure, and policy environment. The discussions are illustrated with six country case studies. Then, the document analyses the major challenges faced by institutional reforms in developing countries regarding accessibility, accountability, affordability, adaptability, sustainability, and coordination. Next, the document summarises the experience and lessons-learnt from EAS reforms across the developing countries. Finally, based on the previous discussions, it gives recommendations on strengthening and reforming public EAS systems.
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    Policy brief
    Strengthening the monitoring and evaluation of the public agricultural extension and advisory service system 2023
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    This policy brief proposes a holistic, systemic, and easy-to-use methodology that is multi-scalar, multi-sectoral, and multi-dimensional for the M&E of public EAS systems, so as to help identify gaps and pathways to strengthen and reform public EAS system. It delivers such key messages as (1) the rationale and objectives of the proposed M&E methodology, (2) M&E frameworks at the national and grass-roots levels following such an order as introduction, key M&E elements, indicator framework, and operational framework, (3) the issues of data sources and data collection, (4) the issue of capacity building, and (5) methods of data analysis.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Guide for monitoring and evaluation of the public agricultural extension and advisory service system 2023
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    This guide is aimed to propose a holistic, systemic, and easy-to-use methodology that is multiscalar, multisectoral, and multidimensional for the M&E of public EAS systems to help identify gaps and pathways to strengthen and reform the public EAS system. It starts with analyses of the common objectives, subject, challenges, lessons learned, and prospects of the existing M&E systems and expounds on the logical framework, rationale and objectives of the proposed M&E methodology from a multistakeholder perspective. Then it proposes M&E frameworks at the national and grassroots levels following such order as the introduction, key M&E elements, indicator framework, and operational framework. Next, it looks at the issues of data sources, data collection, and capacity building, focusing on the institutionalization of the M&E system in the public EAS. Finally, it introduces the commonly used tools and methods of data analysis, focusing on the weighting of indicators, scoring methods, and integrated analytical frameworks.

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