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Enhancing national and regional capacities to deal with Tilapia lake virus










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    Newsletter
    FAO/GIEWS - Special Alert No. 338 2017
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    Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) poses a great threat to the tilapia sector. Tilapias are farmed globally and are the second most important aquaculture species in terms of volumes produced, providing a key source of affordable animal protein, income to fishfarmers and fishers, and domestic and export earnings. TiLV has been confirmed in some countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. It is likely that TiLV may have a wider distribution than is known today and its threat to tilapia farming at the gl obal level is significant. While there is no public health concern for this pathogen, there is a significant risk of TiLV being translocated both inter- and intra-continentally through the movement of infected live tilapias in the absence of appropriate biosecurity measures. Tilapia producing countries need to be vigilant and take appropriate risk management measures (e.g. enhanced diagnostic testing of imported stocks and unexplained tilapia mortalities and reporting to biosecurity authoriti es, active surveillance, public information campaigns and contingency plans) to reduce the further spread and potential socio-economic impacts of this emerging disease.
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    Book (series)
    Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV)
    Expert Knowledge Elicitation (EKE) Risk Assessment
    2018
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    The experts who participated in the expert knowledge elicitation (EKE) risk assessment concluded that Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) represents a significant risk to most parts of the world, especially to those countries where tilapia aquaculture or fisheries is important from both food security and commercial perspective. The experts considered that the main risk pathway is the translocation of live fish (for aquaculture, direct human consumption or ornamental/aquarium fish keeping purposes. The experts are of the view that the role of trade in uncooked, chilled/frozen whole fish and fish products (such as fillets) as a pathway for disease spread when compared to live fish pathway was considered to be comparatively small. The risk of TiLV to Pacific island countries and territories and North America were generally considered less than the risk ot TiLV to Asia, Africa and South America, both in terms of lower likelihood of entry, establishment and spread, and associated consequences. The experts considered that of the sixteen potential measures presented (divided into: (1) movement restrictions, (2) surveillance, (3) basic biosecurity at farm level, and (4) emergency preparedness and response), movement restriction to be the most effective in managing the international spread of TiLV. Measures may include: the prohibition of live tilapia imports; sourcing live tilapia only from populations tested and certified TiLV-free; and quarantine and post arrival testing of imported live tilapia.
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    Book (series)
    Tilapia lake virus disease strategy manual 2021
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    The purpose of this manual is to inform national policymakers and other stakeholders of issues related to the development of contingency plans for responding to outbreaks of tilapia lake virus disease (TiLVD), which has caused substantial mortalities, up to 90 percent, in populations of both wild and farmed tilapia in Asia, the Americas, and Africa. The causative agent for this disease is tilapia lake virus (TiLV), which infects the liver, spleen, kidney, heart, gill tissues, brain, connective tissues of muscle, and reproductive organs of tilapia. Outbreaks of TiLVD not only have devastating economic effects on producers, but also can result in a variety of socio-economic impacts on surrounding communities. It would, therefore, be prudent to implement strategies for the prevention of TiLVD and to develop contingency plans to eradicate, contain, and mitigate the impacts of the disease when outbreaks occur. This manual provides information on: 1) the nature of TiLVD; 2) diagnosis; 3) prevention and control; 4) epidemiology; 5) principles of eradication, containment and mitigation; and 6) policy development issues.

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