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Linking Smallholders to Markets - Opportunities and Challenges

APHCA Research Brief No. 12-06








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    Asian livestock. Challenges, opportunities and the response.
    Proceedings of an international policy forum held in Bangkok, Thailand, 16-17 August 2012
    2012
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    Growing populations, rising disposable incomes and progressive urbanization in Asia and the Pacific region have spurred rapid growth in the consumption of animal source foods. The region has generated more than half the gains in global livestock production since the early 1990s and this growth is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. However, the manner of supply growth has also imposed considerable social, health and ecological costs. Signs of resource stress are now becoming visible and are raising new challenges for the food and nutrition security of the poor. There are also growing concerns of real and potential marginalization of small producers in the process, resulting in missed opportunities for supporting rural livelihoods. Climate change, water scarcity, land degradation and increased resource competition for food, feed and fuel production pose major additional challenges for the sector in the long run. The environmental and natural resource implications of livestoc k production have come under intense public scrutiny in recent years and the debate on climate change has been particularly passionate. Similarly, in view of the widespread prevalence of a number of production-limiting and trade-preventing diseases in the region and growing health concerns resulting from zoonotic and food-borne diseases, support for the development of policies and response systems for enhancing food safety and minimizing disease burdens is another area that is receiving growing attention. To discuss these issues, promote collaboration and knowledge exchange among relevant national and international agencies and discover ways of addressing future challenges, FAO and partner organizations convened the Regional Livestock Policy Forum in Bangkok, Thailand from 16 to17 August 2012. This publication provides the proceedings of the forum including technical papers presented. The presentations on good practices were video recorded and the video links are indicated in Annexure 1.
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    Asia-Pacific Forestry Week. New challenges - New opportunities 2012
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    Asia-Pacific Forestry Week was a large and dynamic event that brought together people from all dimensions of forestry across the Asia-Pacific region. More than 1000 participants from governments, non-government organizations, research institutions, regional and international networks, UN agencies, universities and colleges met under one roof to discuss forestry issues around the theme of "new challenges - new opportunities". Forestry Week aimed to take stock of existing challenges in Asia-Pacifi c forestry while also exploring new developments. The overarching objective was to improve management of the region's forest resources taking full account of associated social, economic, cultural and environmental values. This publication covers the wide range of events held during Forestry Week and bears testament to the diversity of forestry activities in the region.
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    Biofuel co-products as livestock feed - Opportunities and challenges 2012
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    Climate change and predicted shortages of fossil fuels present major challenges. Currently, biofuel production is from agricultural crops grown primarily on arable land. Conflict with the traditional use of arable land, itself a limited resource, to produce food and animal feed must be avoided and economic sustainability assured. At present cereals, especially maize and wheat, and sugar cane are used for ethanol production, with soybean, oil palm and rapeseed for biodiesel production. The expa nding transport industry requires increasing amounts of biofuels, and an increasing market for co-products has generated a need for new feedstocks. Cellulosic material, often available from sub-prime land with minimal inputs, and other non-conventional sources are being investigated. Before being used as feeds, some seeds and cakes will require detoxification. The contribution of micro-algae, production of which can be achieved in coastal waters, is likely to grow in importance. These developmen ts are mirrored the broadening of the animal species receiving the co-products, from ruminants, especially cattle, and pigs to poultry and fish (aquaculture). Further developments include enhancement of the use of existing co-products and the introduction of new ones. This publication collates, discusses and summarizes state-of-the-art knowledge on the use as livestock feed and future availability of co-products from the biofuel industry. The levels at which the co-products could be safely use d in livestock diets are also presented. Throughout the book, gaps in knowledge and research topics needed to address them have been identified. These include standardization of product quality to assist ration formulation; testing of new products; development of detoxification procedures; research on micro-algae; and life cycle analysis linked to traditional nutritional appraisal. This publication covers a wide array of co-products and is a timely contribution, as people's aspirations are ris ing, evident from the increasing demand for livestock products and an ever greater reliance on transport, coupled with the challenge of maintaining agricultural production when faced with global warming. We hope that the information here synthesized will be useful to policy-makers, researchers, the feed industry, science managers and NGOs, supporting them in making information- based decisions on issues such as food-feed-fuel competition. Hopefully it will help confront the emerging challenges o f global warming, in addition to making efficient use as livestock feed of a wide range of currently available and future co-products from the biofuel industry.

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