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Managing pastoral risk in Mongolia - a plan of action

Project: Pastoral Risk Management, TCP/FAO/MON 0066







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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Pastoralism in Mongolia, a needed balance between production and sustainable use of natural resources 2021
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    Entrenched in its economic, social and political history, pastoralism is woven into Mongolian identity and nationhood. Pastoralism is an extensive animal production system specialized to environments that show a high degree of variability such as deserts, drylands, steppes, forest and steppes, tundra and high-altitude mountain ranges. It is well suited to Mongolia’s sparsely populated high plains that serve as vast open pastures for livestock herds and is one of the main occupations in Mongolia. This policy brief highlights the economic contribution of pastoralism at the national level, not only through the production and sale of animal-based products, but also through household self-consumption. It presents the main needs and challenges faced by the families that carry out this practice in Mongolia and highlights the need for local civil society organizations to collect and manage data relevant to the sector, paving the path for advocating for evidence-based policies.
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    Mongolia: Belgium’s contribution through the Special Fund for Emergency and Rehabilitation Activities (SFERA) – Anticipatory Action window 2023
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    In Mongolia, the frequency, intensity and unpredictability of weather extremes such as the harsh winter (dzud), drought, snow and dust storms, heavy rainfall and flooding have tripled in the last decade, heavily impacting traditional livestock-based livelihoods. In 2022, according to the National Agrometeorological Services, 50 percent of the country’s territory experienced a moisture deficit in the summer season. Coupled with early snowfall and below-average temperature forecasts, this resulted in 59 percent of the country being at high risk of dzud. Following these early warning signs, and thanks to the Government of Belgium’s contribution to the SFERA – Anticipatory Action window, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) together with the Government of Mongolia put in place Anticipatory Action measures to mitigate a potential massive livestock mortality in 11 provinces at high risk of dzud. FAO will provide cash transfers to help households procure fodder at reduced government rates and ensure their livelihood is protected during dzud. The reduced rates will come in the form of a 50 percent discount on hay and fodder from the state emergency reserve to vulnerable herder households in 158 soums/administrative divisions.
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    Book (series)
    The economics of pastoralism in Argentina, Chad and Mongolia
    Market participation and multiple livelihood strategies in a shock-prone environment
    2020
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    Pastoralists make the most of resources distributed unevenly over space and time to provide a range of goods and services. Operating in a shock-prone environment, pastoralists deploy endogenous strategies such as mobility, diversification in agriculture or in non-agricultural activities, management of social networks, etc. However, accurate and reliable knowledge about the economics of pastoralism is yet to be understood and absorbed at the local, regional and national levels, based on reliable data. In the absence of such knowledge, governments and private firms neglect investment that would allow those systems to better connect to markets, and are unable to provide appropriate services, infrastructure and tenure security. With Argentina, Chad and Mongolia as pilot cases, this study by CIRAD, commissioned by FAO, funded by IFAD and facilitated by pastoralist associations (Fundación Gran Chaco, Réseau Billital Maroobé, and the National Federation of Pasture User Groups), aimed to fulfil this knowledge gap through a multifunctional assessment of pastoral production systems and their economic contribution. Importantly, incorporating self-consumption of pastoralist households’ productions themselves as an key component of gross revenue shows a significant increase in their contribution to national GDPs. The diversified sources of revenue and the importance of self-consumption also indicate that pastoral systems fulfil a range of functions (income, food security, flexible labor, etc.). Further, the study promotes close cooperation between pastoralist associations, research institutions and development partners. Such new partnerships allow strengthening the capacity of those pastoralist associations in collecting and managing their own data, as well as using this data in policy dialogue.

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