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ေောငံဵမးနံေသာတီလာဵပီဵယာဵသာဵေပါေံထုတံလုပံမှုန္ငံဴ တီလာဵပီဵယာဵေနံေ့ပံေမးဵျမူျြငံဵနညံဵလမံဵမ့ာဵ










​FAO. 2019. ေောငံဵမးနံေသာတီလာဵပီဵယာဵသာဵေပါေံထုတံလုပံမှုန္ငံဴ တီလာဵပီဵယာဵေနံေ့ပံေမးဵျမူျြငံဵနညံဵလမံဵမ့ာဵ


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    Book (stand-alone)
    Improving the performance of tilapia farming under climate variation: perspective from bioeconomic modelling
    FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 608
    2018
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    Tilapia is the world’s most popular aquaculture species, farmed mostly in earthen ponds. Experience in China, the largest tilapia farming country, is used to develop and calibrate a bioeconomic model of intensive tilapia pond culture. The model is used to simulate the impacts of climate, technical and/or economic factors on farming performance and examines the performance of various farming arrangements under different conditions. The simulation results indicate that: (i) an increase in feed price, an increase in mortality, or a decrease in fish price significantly reduces profitability, whereas an increase in the cost of seed, labour, rent, electricity or water management has smaller impacts on profitability; (ii) considering the impact of water temperature on fish growth, the profitability of a production cycle starting at the optimum timing may be twice as high as one starting at the worst possible time; (iii) farming arrangements that maximize the profit of individual fish crops may not maximize overall profitability because of path dependency of farming performance; (iv) optimal farming arrangements that maximize overall profitability can significantly improve economic performance; (v) given no price discrepancy against small-size fish, harvesting at about 300 g in two-year-five-crop arrangements could increase overall enterprise profitability by up to 50 percent compared with harvesting at > 500 g in one-year-two-crop arrangements; and (vi) a two-tier farming system that separates nursing and outgrowing ponds could allow one-year-three-crop arrangements that enhance profitability by up to nearly 90 percent compared with the one-year-two-crop arrangements. With more refined information on fish growth under different farming conditions, the model could become a decision-making tool to help farmers design optimal farming arrangements.
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    Meeting
    Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC) Regional Overview of the Status and Trends of Aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific Region 2016 2017
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    The aquaculture production in the Asia-Pacific Region during the two year period (2012-2014) is reviewed to see how the aquaculture sector in the region performed during these 2 years. This will allow for the determination of the driving factors that are responsible of the over-all performance of the aquaculture sector. Country production data from the FAO database is the main source of the production statistics used. The over-all performance of the aquaculture sector in the region remained healthy and strong. The region remains the largest contributor to the global supply of fishery products from aquaculture farms supplying 91% of the total global supply of aquaculture products in 2014. As in the previous years, China remained the largest producing country of aquaculture products contributing 63.7 % of the total production in the region, and 58 % to the global supply. Indonesia is fast catching up with its 2014 production up by almost 50% compared to 2012. Other countries that posted modest increase in their aquaculture production between 2012 and 2104 include India (15.9%), Bangladesh (13.4%), Viet Nam (10.2%), New Zealand (9.7%) and Myanmar (8.5%). Although the volume of the production is not much and the production data are all FAO estimates, it is noteworthy to mention that the aquaculture production of Cambodia increased by 62.2% during the 2-year period. Thailand posted the largest decline (26.5%) in its production during 2012 and 2014 largely due to more than 50% decrease in the production of the white leg shrimp as it is affected by a major disease specifically the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND or popularly called Early Mortality Syndrome or EMS). The aquaculture production in Malaysia, Philippines and Australia decreased as well by 17.9, 8.7 and 8.4%, respectively. The herbivorous and omnivorous freshwater (FW) fishes like the carps remained the top commodity for culture with production volume in 2014 equivalent to 41.6% of the total fish production in the region. This has increased by 10.7 % over the 2 year period. Aside from the carps, other FW fishes like the tilapias, catfishes and the FW fishes nei also posted significant increase in production. In addition, the seaweeds particularly Eucheuma in Indonesia and Japanese kelp and Gracilaria in the China sub-region showed more than 30% increase in production between 2012 and 2014. On the other hand, the production of white leg shrimp in Thailand and giant tiger prawn in Indonesia suffered significant decline of more than 30% during the 2-year period. It must be noted, however, that white leg shrimp production in other countries like in India and Indonesia remained strong with increase in annual production of more than 50%. Some important issues like the need to prevent outbreaks of diseases in aquaculture farms, the awareness and the commitment among the players to ensure the good health of the surrounding environment where the aquaculture activities are happening, the need to ensure the sustainability of the use of pelleted feeds, and the necessary preparations that have to be put in place for the future warmer climate have to be consistently in the radar screen to ensure the sustainability and the continued growth of the sector, and thereby for humanity to continue reaping the benefits that can be derived from the industry.
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    Book (series)
    A regional shellfish hatchery for the Wider Caribbean - Assessing its feasibility and sustainability
    FAO Regional Technical Workshop 18-21 October 2010, Kingston, Jamaica
    2011
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    It is widely recognized that the development of aquaculture in the Wider Caribbean region is inhibited, in part, by the lack of technical expertise, infrastructure, capital investment and human resources. Furthermore, seed supply for native species relies, for the most part, on natural collection, subject to natural population abundance with wide yearly variations. This situation has led to the current trend of culturing more readily available exotic species, but with a potentially undesirable i mpact on the natural environment. The centralizing of resources available in the region into a shared facility has been recommended by several expert meetings over the past 20 years. The establishment of a regional hatchery facility, supporting sustainable aquaculture through the seed production of native molluscan species was discussed at the FAO workshop ¿Regional shellfish hatchery: A feasibility study¿ held in New Kingston, Jamaica, in October 2010, by representatives of Caribbean government s and experts in the field. Molluscan species are particularly targeted due to their culture potential in terms of known techniques, simple grow-out technology and low impact on surrounding environment. It is proposed that a regional molluscan hatchery would produce seed for sale and distribution to grow-out operations in the region as well as provide technical support for the research on new species. The current document summarizes the findings of the workshop and outlines four follow-up recomm endations on steps required for the successful implementation of a regional facility. The positive response of participating Caribbean governments demonstrates the current political will for sustainable aquaculture growth in the region, supported by several national plans including the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism Strategic Plan.

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