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State of forest and tree genetic resources in Malawi

The second regional training workshop on conservation; management sustainable utilization of forest genetic resources for Eastern and Southern African Countries








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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Seychelles 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. Seychelles is a small island state in the western Indian Ocean, which has developed a high-income economy and eliminated extreme poverty. Agriculture contributes about 2.2% of the country’s gross domestic product with tourism and the fisheries and seafood industries serving as the main pillars of the economy. Agricultural land occupies about 3.4% of the total land area of the country. A large portion of the land area (88.4%) is covered by forest mainly natural and established plantations for commercial purposes. Seychelles is divided into two large agro-climatic zones based on biophysical characteristics- mountainous/forest zone high ground and coastal plateau. In terms of agriculture, two agroecological zones can be distinguished mainly based on soil: upland and sandy soil. Main cropping systems includes food crop-based systems and perennial crop-based systems. Livestock production include goat, pig and chicken. Most crop production is under rainfed or irrigation system. Most farms are under 2 ha with backyard farming done to supplement household food or income. The main crops and products include coconut, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potato, cassava, banana and tuna. Seychelles has the highest rate of overweight and obesity in Africa due to the shift from predominantly unprocessed traditional foods to a more westernised dietary intake consisting mainly of refined and processed foods. most greenhouse gas (GHG) emission come from the energy sector, followed by waste and agriculture which contributes 0.79% of the total. Seychelles has outlined in its nationally determined contributions mitigation actions in the forestry, energy and transport, and waste sectors. In agriculture, actions to mitigate climate change include: promotion of agricultural practises such as agroforestry which would involve mainstreaming strategies to limit deforestation and increase the sink capacity of forests. Challenges for the agricultural sector include (i) deforestation and unsuccessful intensification, (ii) uncontrolled urbanisation, land clearing, bush fires and population pressure, and (iii) high reliance on food imports. Agriculture in Seychelles is limited by a lack of arable land and extreme rainfall patterns and meteorological events like tropical storms, floods and droughts. Climate change poses serious challenges to the country such as uncontrolled economic and social consequences of floods, land degradation, sea-level rise, coastal erosion, declining agricultural yields, health vulnerability, and increased occurrence of drought. CSA technologies and practises present opportunities for addressing climate change challenges as well as for economic growth and development of the agriculture sector. Identified CSA practises in use in the country include: crop production under shade houses, inter cropping, use of organic manure and mulch, use of weather information, water control through irrigation, anti-erosion arrangement, windbreak and shelter, and use of climate-adapted seeds. Seychelles has several key institutions and policies aimed at supporting and increasing agriculture productivity and advancing CSA practises. These include government ministries and agency structures of ministries, firms operating in the agricultural sector, academic institutions, specialised laboratories and agricultural research institutes and training centres. The Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change (MEECC) serving as the country’s UNFCCC focal point and nationally designated authority to the Green Climate Fund is responsible for country’s climate change plans and policies. On the agriculture front the ministry of agriculture and fisheries is the key government institution for partnerships for climate-smart agriculture work in the communities as well as for policy and investment related issues through the national agricultural investment plan. A number of csa-related policies and strategies have been developed: National Programme on climate change strategy, national strategy for disaster risk management, national biodiversity strategy and action plan and the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into the country’s strategic plan- a definitive document intended to guide land-use management up to the year 2040. A number of projects that foster the development of knowledge and evidence on the effectiveness of climate smart agriculture in improving food security, mitigating climate change and improving the adaptive capacities of production systems and populations in Seychelles have received support from various donors and financing schemes. In addition, AfDB, COMESA, FAO, EU, IFAD, etc. have invested hugely in several aspects of the climate/agricultural sector of Seychelles which also include the development and promotion of csa innovations. From various sources of climate finance available internationally, Seychelles is currently eligible for only a limited number of these and has not wholly accessed major funding instruments such as the Green Climate Fund and Adaptation Fund. The county is a small island nation whose prospects rely heavily on external demand, especially tourism. This poses major challenges for diversification and resilience. Its commitment to csa is relatively new with limited institutions and sources of funding.
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    Communities in flames: proceedings of an international conference on community involvement in fire management 2002
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    As global concern over the fate of the world’s forests has grown generally, so too has specific concern over the frequency and intensity of forest fires, which have increased dramatically as a result of human activities in recent years. Since the widespread fires of the late 1990s, numerous organizations have supported various fire prevention, suppression and management initiatives. These efforts have indicated that no single actor can independently solve the serious social, economic and ecologi cal challenges associated with uncontrolled forest fires. Importantly, it is now increasingly recognized that, in many countries, local communities can play significant positive roles in fire management. The publication provides long-awaited and first-hand insights into community-based forest fire management. It should prove useful to those responsible for formulating and implementing fire management policies and programmes in better understanding the key issues and challenges of involving loca l people as effective partners in managing forest fires.
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    Project
    Improving sustainable use of forest resources for communities in Zambézia and Cabo Delgado - UTF/MOZ/123/MOZ 2022
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    Mozambique’s forest and wildlife resources are threatened by deforestation, forest degradation and forest fires, in particular as a result of shifting cultivation, illegal logging, poaching and uncontrolled firewood and charcoal production. The country also suffers from a weak governance system, which results in greater increases in forest loss, as highlighted by the forest governance assessment undertaken in 2016. Approved in 2016, following a forest governance assessment, the Mozambique Forest Investment Plan ( MozFIP ) provides a framework for channelling international support to the country’s commitment towards forest sector reforms and transformational change, with national level activities aimed at improving the enabling environment and reducing deforestation and on the ground investments in the provinces of Cabo Delgado and Zambézia The present project was implemented in order to provide technical and strategic support to the implementation of the MozFIP , in alignment with other forest investment efforts in the country and the wider subregion . It aimed to achieve this by strengthening the capacities of public institutions, improving the policy and legal framework, fostering and monitoring the activity of forestry operators and improving communities’ livelihoods, all key players in promoting sustainable forest management (SFM).

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