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Strengthening Institutional Capacity in Mitigating HIV/AIDS Impact on the Agricultural Sector

Potential Mitigation Interventions







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    The impact of HIV/AIDS on farmers knowledge of seed Case study of Chokwa District, Gaza Province, Mozambique
    Case study of Chokwa District, Gaza Province, Mozambique
    2004
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    HIV/AIDS has a negative impact on all the key factors that facilitate access to local and new knowledge around seed and seed management, including local capacity for seed conservation, access to labor and land. Women, the principal keepers of this knowledge are particularly vulnerable to these impacts. Based on fieldwork carried out in Chókwè District of Gaza Province, southern Mozambique, this study reveals that female-headed households have a significantly smaller area of cultivated land, plant fewer crops and have access to less family labor. These factors all relate to seed security, suggesting that female-headed households are less seed secure than maleheaded households. However, it is difficult to determine whether this is caused by poverty (femaleheaded households are likely to be poorer than male-headed households) or the impact of HIV/AIDS. Statistical analysis of the data collected suggests that HIV/AIDS affected households, especially those households car ing for orphans, experienced constraints in access to seed and seed information. These issues should be addressed urgently before the erosion of local knowledge undermines seed security and thereby food security. New agricultural projects, especially those relating to seed, should be formulated to target and relieve some of the farm level constraints faced by HIV/AIDS affected households, especially those households caring for orphans and femaleheaded households.
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    Incorporating HIV/AIDS considerations into food security and livelihood projects 2003
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    Over the last decade, HIV/AIDS has become increasingly associated with malnutrition and household food insecurity in many countries around the world. Life-prolonging medication exists for HIV/AIDS, but access to such medicines and accompanying care is beyond the reach of most people living with the disease. This is especially the case in countries where the rapid increase in HIV-positive individuals and those affected by HIV/AIDS, such as orphans, is creating additional pressures for communities with already scarce resources. Within this context, a new imperative has emerged: rethinking development strategies and redirecting projects and resources to address the impact of HIV/AIDS on food and livelihood security. While the need to mitigate the effects of HIV/AIDS is increasingly acknowledged, it is equally important to recognize that food and livelihood security is a key element of prevention. Prevention is usually considered to be the health sector’s responsibility and most commo nly involves education and the promotion of safer sexual practices. However, food and livelihood insecurity often leads people into behaviours and strategies that increase their risk of infection, such as migration and prostitution. Improving livelihoods, especially among the most vulnerable groups in society, can provide a concrete way to tackle one of the most fundamental issues behind the spread of HIV.
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    Addressing the impact of HIV/AIDS on ministries of agriculture: focus on eastern and southern Africa 2003
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    This paper examines the relevance of HIV/AIDS for Ministries of Agriculture (MoAs) and their work in sub-Saharan Africa, and particularly in Eastern and Southern Africa. The focus of analysis is smallholder agriculture as this has been affected most severely by the HIV epidemic. The systemic impact of HIV/AIDS and the magnitude of its scale are changing the environment in which MoAs operate, triggering or intensifying a number of structural changes in the smallholder sector in particular, in cluding: long-term changes in farming systems (as household cultivation shifts from cash crops to subsistence crops and from labour-intensive to labour-extensive crops); and changes in the age structure and quality of the agricultural labour force as more elderly people and children assume a greater role in farming. Four areas of HIV/AIDS impact are analysed in detail: (1) MoA staff vulnerability to HIV infection and AIDS impact; (2) the disruption of MoA operations and the erosion of capacity to respond to the challenges being posed by the HIV epidemic; (3) the increased vulnerability of MoA clients to food and livelihood insecurity; (4) the relevance of certain MoA policies, strategies and programmes in view of the conditions being created by HIV/AIDS.

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