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Mongolia and FAO: Achievements and Success Stories








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    Maldives and FAO: Achievements and Success Stories 2011
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    Maldives became a member of FAO in 1971 and was accredited to the FAO Representative’s office in Sri Lanka in 1979. The economy of Maldives has grown rapidly since 1975, making impressive socio-economic progress when measured by improvements in socio-economic indicators and poverty reduction. The government has played a central role in the rapid growth of fisheries and tourism, which are the main foreign exchange earners of the country. Food security in Maldives has unique features as the countr y depends on imports for most of its food needs, including rice, which is the country’s staple grain. Outside of Malé, fishing and subsistence agriculture are the main sources of food security and livelihoods for the vast majority of the people. The agricultural sector of Maldives is based primarily on coconuts and other tree crops with only some 4 000 hectares under other agriculture crops. In response to the current food and fuel crisis, Maldives is integrating food security into national plan ning. It has removed tariffs on imported food items, agricultural inputs and fuel and is intensifying and diversifying agriculture and fisheries. Maldives is also promoting and strengthening small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in both these sectors, while providing financial support for small growers and fishers in rural areas. Climate change is central to all discussions about food security in Maldives, because it is adversely affecting crops and fish stocks and reducing land area as the sea le vel rises. Developing agriculture as the third pillar of the economy, after tourism and fishing, is one of the priorities of the 7th National Development Plan, which is being implemented at present. The government is working with FAO and IFAD as well as the private sector to develop agriculture by introducing new and innovative techniques and technology that would make farming into a vehicle for commercially viable sustainable rural development. Since the early 1970’s, FAO has provided assistanc e to the government through national and regional programmes to address the needs and priorities of the country. Direct support from FAO in the form of targeted Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) projects has totalled US$9.5 million. Additionally, Maldives has been a recipient of support from numerous regional TCP projects. The country also received substantial amounts of emergency assistance for post tsunami recovery in 2005 and 2006. Donors supporting development through FAO in Maldives inc lude: Japan, Finland, Sweden, Belgium, EC, Germany, Saudi Arabia, and the Netherlands.
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    Myanmar and FAO: Achievements and Success Stories 2011
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    Myanmar economy did not undergo significant structural changes, even though it experienced different political and economical systems since it independence in 1948. The country is still an agro-based country in which agriculture sector is the backbone of the economy and main stay of rural economy. Some 20 percent of Myanmar’s 48 million people suffer from undernourishment, confirming that the nation has significant work ahead of it if it is to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of reducing the proportion of people suffering from hunger by half by the year 2015. Life expectancy is low at 57 years of age, while child mortality rates are high at about 107 per 1 000 live births. Agriculture in Myanmar is the most important sector of the country’s economy, contributing 42 percent to the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). Agricultural exports are valued at $379 million a year. The sector supports 70 percent of Myanmar’s labour force. Rice is the major crop, covering about 60 percen t of the country’s total cultivated land area. Rice accounts for 97 percent of total food grain production by weight, and it is one of the main reasons that more than 98 percent of Myanmar’s total water use goes to agriculture. Myanmar became a member of FAO on 11 September 1947, and an FAO Representative Office was opened in 1978. Over the past 30 years, FAO has provided assistance through some 100 national projects and many regional field projects that support crops, livestock, fisheries and f orestry efforts. Projects also cover agriculture and rural investment planning, census, statistics, agricultural research, food and industrial crops, crop processing, food technology, plant protection, and animal health with a total budget of $193 million since 1978. FAO projects in Myanmar are funded from the Organization’s own resources under the Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) while others are funded through donor contributions (e.g. Australia, Austria, Italy, Japan, PricewaterhouseCoop ers Charitable Foundation, Sweden, UK-DFID and the UN Central Emergency Response Fund.). The country further benefits from a number of FAO assisted regional and global programmes, including emergency operations and rehabilitation programmes, and the Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES).
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    Pakistan and FAO: Achievements and Success Stories 2011
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    Within one month of gaining its independence, Pakistan joined FAO on 7 September 1947, the first UN body it joined, clearly signalling the high priority assigned to developing its agriculture sector. The first agreement between FAO and the government was for technical assistance in agricultural policy and planning in June 1951. FAO support to the government was coordinated through UNDP until the accreditation of an FAO Representative to Pakistan in 1978. Agriculture is a mainstay of the Pakistan economy, although it has been declining as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) as the country’s industrial and service sectors have grown. Agriculture accounted for 21 percent of GDP in 2010, compared to 36 percent in 1980. The sector provided livelihoods for 45 percent of the population in 2010, down from 53 percent three decades earlier. Pakistan’s food security rests upon its wheat production. The country produced 24 million tonnes of wheat in 2010, compared with 11.6 million tonnes a year in the early 1980s. Wheat has helped feed a population that has grown to 174 million people from 85 million in 1980. Rice production has more than doubled over the same period, rising to 7 million tonnes from 3.3 million tonnes, and is now a major export crop earning US$2.2 billion in foreign exchange. Cotton has become a major industrial feedstock, with production increasing to 12 million bales in 2010, up from 4.5 million bales in the early 1980s. Livestock production has also substan tially increased to a value of US$758.604 million from US$51.51 million in 1980. Livestock exports totalled US$37.46 million in 2010, compared to US$1.170 million three decades ago. FAO has been at the government’s side throughout this process of development, implementing 573 projects worth US$314 million that have provided support to policy development, capacity building and pilot and key demonstration projects. Pakistan is a pilot country for the One UN system and FAO has been at the forefron t of developing the approach that ensures the highest priority is given to the agriculture sector in line with the government’s priorities.

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