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Challenges and Opportunities in Genetic Improvement of Local Livestock Breeds









Biscarini Filippo, Nicolazzi Ezequiel L., Stella Alessandra, Boettcher Paul J., Gandini Gustavo. (2015). Challenges and opportunities in genetic improvement of local livestock breeds. Frontiers in Genetics. Vol. 6. pp. 33. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2015.00033


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    Animal genetic resources - conservation and management 1981
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    The term "animal genetic resources" In used to include all broods, types, varieties and populations of animals that inhabit the earth under both improved and unimproved conditions. TLe conservation and management of these resources is a subject of great concern 'to both FAO and UNEP. Dr. Ralph W. Fbillips, Doputy Director-General of FAO has given an excellent summary of FAO activities In this area In the inaugural address which is Included in these proceedings. In the developed temperate zones of the world, the centuries of slow but effective selection by breeders, followed by the application of scientific brooding programmes during the present century have resulted in high levels of performance being achieved in a small number of breeds of each species. Thin eventually led to the replacement of many local low-producing broods in Europe and elsewhere by the high-producing "improver" breeds. The growing demand for animal products in warmer countries has led to this policy being follow ed world wide. Because of the case of replacing a population by artificial insemination (AI) there is a danger of genetic attrition m the scale that has already occured in Europe. Furthermore, this policy of massive grading-up in being applied in climates in which it may not be the most desirable. The genes can easily be imported (e.g. as semen), but the environment to which they are adapted in less easy to reproduce. In many cases a systematic crossbreeding programme In more appropriate than gr ading up to a temperate breed. Such a programme requires the retention of the local adapted breeds.
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    Report of a Technical Consultation to Promote Public-Private Partnerships for Pre-Breeding 2013
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    Mutually beneficial public-private partnerships, as an integral part of crop improvement, are critically important for pre-breeding. Such partner ships enhance the adaptive capacities of cropping systems to climate change, and respond to the need for increasing productivity, in order to feeding an increasing global population. A technical consultation on promoting public- private partnerships for pre-breeding was according ly convened in Rome, Italy in May 2013. Participants presented on a wide range of approache s to crop improvement involving public- private partnerships. They agreed on the importance of conducting a thorough needs assessment, to identify the objectives of, and arti culate the most effective arrangements for a global initiative to promote Public-Private Partner ships for Pre-breeding, under the aegis of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. They stressed the importance of securing the support of stakeholders through wide consul tation, and of clarifying the remit of the proposed global initiative, in 201 4. Overall, there was a strong support for exploring the possibility for the establishment of a global initiative to promote Public-Private Partner ship For Pre-breeding that specifically addresses the imperative of broadening the genetic base of breeding materials, and of ensuring the access of plant breeders throughout the world t o the widest possible range of high quality pre-commercial, pre-bred materials that are in suit able forms to be used in plant breeding. Towards this end, it was agreed, amongst immediate next steps, that a thorough needs assessment be carried out and the models currently in practice in Brazil, Germany and the Nordic countries be reviewed. Outcomes of this consultation will be presented in the form of a Declaration of Intent at the Third High-level Roundtable on the International Treaty (Bandung Indonesia, 02-04 July 2013), and to the Fifth Session of the International Treaty’s Go verning Body (Muscat, Oman, 24-28 September 2013)
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    Workshop on Sharing Experiences on Cattle Breeding Activities Among Smallholders
    1-2 December 2022, Budapest, Hungary
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    Cattle breeding in Eastern Europe and Central Asia has a rich history, with indigenous breeds that have adapted to local conditions, enabling farmers to thrive in remote areas. However, the region's traditional cattle breeding practices are often inefficient and rely on outdated techniques. Small- and medium-scale producers dominate the industry, resulting in low production and poor animal health compared to more advanced countries. Challenges faced by the cattle breeding sector include outdated technologies and competition from neighboring countries with superior infrastructure. The need for modernization is evident to improve efficiency and competitiveness for farmers in the region. In response, the Animal Health and Production Strategy for the FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia 2020–2025 was developed, emphasizing three pillars: animal health, animal production, and antimicrobial resistance. The strategy highlighted climate change, gender, and environmental sustainability as crucial factors in achieving sustainability. Cattle breeding emerged as a major concern in non-EU countries of Europe and Central Asia, where centralized breeding strategies and state support programs are inadequate. Farmers struggle to compete with EU-subsidized production. The absence of critical tools such as animal identification and traceability systems, performance recording, and artificial insemination or genetic conservation programs further hinder progress. To enhance the effectiveness of cattle breeding, governments should prioritize these essential tools and modernize the industry to meet the challenges posed by external competition and outdated practices.

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