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A species-specific approach for tracing Brazilian timber origins and associated illegality risks across the supply-chain

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    Article
    Case study of national timber legality systems as global efforts to prevent illegal logging
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Global society has been putting efforts together to prevent forests from rampant deforestation and illegal logging worldwide since sustainability is a common goal for the Earth. At the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) called Rio+10, global efforts of timber importing countries and private sectors to restrain illegal logging were discussed in 2002. As a market instrument to eradicate illegal logging, timber legality systems in consumer countries have been implemented, starting with the United States since 2008, the European Union (EU) since 2013, Indonesia since 2016, Australia since 2017, Japan since 2018, and the Republic of Korea since 2019. In the implementation stage of the timber legality, the due diligence system plays a role in reducing the risk of illegally logged timber in a supply chain. This study investigated the due diligence system of Australian timber legality as a good practice and analyzed it according to the standard of risk management of International Standard Organization (ISO) consisting of 1) risk identification, 2) risk analysis, 3) risk assessment, 4) risk treatment, and 5) monitoring and review. As a result, the due diligence system of Australia was compatible with the risk management criteria of ISO. The timber legality in Australia was established based on relevant laws and regulations. Its system stepwise was composed of risk assessment and mitigation as well as risk identification and analysis of illegal logging possibility in accordance with origins and species. Eventually, this study clarified the structure of due diligence systems and evaluated the crucial points of these systems based on standards of ISO risk management. Results of this study will contribute to our understanding of timber legality towards sustainable development. Keywords: International Standard Organization (ISO), Timber Legality System, Due Diligence, Risk Management ID: 3623617
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    Where does the wood come from? A matrix model for tracing the origin of wood-based products
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Globally, timber trade flows have increased in recent years. While value is generally added along the entire value chain, certain environmental impacts, such as deforestation and forest degradation, are intrinsically linked to the origin of the roundwood. Bilateral trade statistics are of limited help in providing insights about the location of impacts caused by consumption of wood-based products elsewhere. This is mainly because wood-based products are often imported from countries other than the one from which the roundwood originated. We present a novel method that makes it possible to relate the consumption of wood-based products to the origin of roundwood. Thus, the method helps to provide information on distant environmental impacts of wood consumption. Keywords: Sustainable forest management, Value chain, Deforestation and forest degradation, Research ID: 3623115
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    Article
    Assessing land use and cover change, forest degradation and secondary forest databases for better understand of airborne CO2 measurements over the Brazilian Amazon
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Tropical forests are essential for ecosystem services provision and for climate change mitigation. Amazon forest, the largest continue tropical forests in the world, have been decreasing due to deforestation and forest degradation. Brazil, a country containing most of the Amazon forests, also presents the highest deforestation rates within the Pan-Amazonian countries. The CARBAM project has been collecting bimonthly CO2 atmospheric measurements from an airplane since 2010 in the Brazilian Amazon, showing that there is a reduction on the forest capacity to absorb carbon for deforestation and climate change patterns. To understand these CO2 fluxes, we need to analyze the land use and cover change processes including forest degradation and secondary forest growth. Our goal is to assess different databases to better understand deforestation, degradation and secondary forest dynamics in the Amazon. For this, we merged different databases for the period 2010-2018: MapBiomas for land use and cover change; PRODES for deforestation; Bullock et al. (2020) for degradation; and Silva et al. (2020) for secondary forest. We found that, from the total accumulated deforested area in 2018 (17% of the Brazilian Amazon), pasture represent 69% fallowed by secondary vegetation 21% and agriculture 8%. The annual deforested area, smaller than secondary vegetation area, is increasing since 2012. Degradation has a different area each year. The carbon uptake by secondary forest and degradation dynamics is underestimated in the national communications of greenhouse gases, and its mapping is extremely relevant to policy makers to accomplish the National Determined Contribution. The large pasture areas deserve attention because it may permit the secondary forest to increase and provide agriculture expansion areas, decreasing in this way the pressure for deforestation and degradation of primary forest and contributing to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Amazon forests. Keywords: Amazon forests, deforestation, degradation, secondary forests, CO2 emissions ID: 3623188

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