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Drug management and parasite resistance in bovine trypanosomiasis in Africa













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    Book (stand-alone)
    Drug management and parasite resistence in animal Trypansomiasis in Africa 1998
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    Trypanocidal drugs remain the principal method of animal trypanosomiasis control in most African countries. However, there is growing concern that their future effectiveness may be severely curtailed by widespread drug resistance. This document presents an overview of the current situation of resistance to drugs for the chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis in African livestock. Although the number of case reports on drug resistance is increasing, there is a lack of reliable data at the regional or national level on the true prevalence and impact of drug resistance.
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    Article
    Cattle breeding, trypanosomosis prevalence and drug resistance in Northern Togo 2017
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    African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is a major disease of cattle in Togo and its control is essentially based on chemotherapy. However, because of excessive use of trypanocides during the past decades, chemo-resistance in the parasites has developed. In order to assess the current situation of AAT and resistance to trypanocidal drugs in Northern Togo, a study was conducted on cattle from December 2012 to August 2013 in the regions of Kara and Savanes. An initial cross-sectional survey was carrie d out in 40 villages using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique (HCT). Out of these, 5 villages with a trypanosome prevalence of > 10% were selected for a block treatment study (BT) with diminazene diaceturate (DA: 3.5 mg / kg for a 14-day follow-up) and isometamidium chloride (ISM: 0.5 mg / kg for a 28-day follow-up). Positive blood samples collected during the parasitological surveys and an equivalent number of negatives were further analyzed by PCR-RFLP for trypanosome species confirmatio n and molecular diagnosis of resistance to DA in T. congolense. The results from 1,883 bovine blood samples confirmed a high overall trypanosome prevalence of 10.8% in Northern Togo. PCR-RFLP revealed that T. congolense is the dominant pathogenic trypanosome species (50.5%) followed by T. vivax (27.3%), and T. brucei (16.2%). The BT showed varying levels of treatment failures ranging from 0 to 30% and from 0 to 50% for DA and for ISM respectively, suggesting the existence of resistant trypanosom e populations in the study area. Our results show that AAT still represents a major obstacle to the development of cattle husbandry in Northern Togo. In areas of high AAT risk, a community-based integrated strategy combining vector control, rational use of trypanocidal drugs and improving the general condition of the animals is recommended to decision makers.
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    Book (series)
    Expert consultation on the sustainable management of parasites in livestock challenged by the global emergence of resistance
    Part 2: African animal trypanosomosis and drug resistance: a challenge to progressive, sustainable disease control
    2022
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    African animal trypanosomosis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by tsetse flies and other vectors in 37 African countries. Affecting livestock health and welfare, the disease imposes a heavy burden on communities that rely on domestic animals for their livelihoods. In most endemic areas, trypanosomosis control relies heavily on trypanocidal drugs, which are often the only tool farmers possess to manage the problem. Unfortunately, the few veterinary medicines to treat or prevent the disease are old and outdated, and their efficacy is challenged by the emergence and spread of resistant trypanosome strains. FAO convened experts to discuss how to control African animal trypanosomosis progressively and sustainably in the face of drug resistance. FAO organized the meeting in the framework of an Expert Consultation on the sustainable management of parasites in livestock challenged by the global emergence of resistance. The experts of animal trypanosomosis warned that over 17 countries in Africa have reported treatment failure possibly resulting from trypanocidal drug resistance, which hampers disease control and negatively affects food security and livelihoods. Several factors contribute to the emergence and spread of trypanocidal drug resistance, including drug overuse and misuse, the circulation of fake or substandard products and weak controls along the supply chains. The meeting recommended that national authorities should promote the quality control of trypanocides, raise awareness of rational drug use and strengthen data collection and surveillance. FAO and the other organizations of the Tripartite should develop and disseminate guidelines and best practices, provide a platform for technical and scientific discussions, and they should support advocacy, awareness and resource mobilization at the international level. Academic institutions should improve our understanding of the mechanisms and drivers of resistance and develop more effective tools to monitor and curb the spread of the problem.

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