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Does Migration Make Rural Households More Productive? Evidence from Mexico








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    Moving Forward, Looking Back: The Impact of Migration and Remittances on Assets, Consumption, and Credit Constraints in the Rural Philippines
    Agnes R. Quisumbing and Scott McNiven
    2007
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    This paper investigates the impact of migration and remittances on asset holdings, consumption expenditures, and credit constraint status of households in origin communities, using a unique longitudinal data set from the Philippines. The Bukidnon Panel Study follows up 448 families in rural Mindanao who were first interviewed in 1984/85 by the International Food Policy Research Institute and the Research Institute for Mindanao Culture, Xavier University. The study interviewed the original resp ondents and a sample of their offspring, both those who have remained in the same area and those who have moved to a different location. This paper examines the impact of remittances from outside the original survey villages on parent households, taking into account the endogeneity of the number of migrants and remittances received to characteristics of the origin households and communities, completed schooling of sons and daughters, and shocks to both the origin households and migrants. When b oth migration and remittances are treated as endogenous, a larger number of migrant children reduces the values of nonland assets, total expenditures per adult equivalent, and some components of household expenditures. On the other hand, remittances have a positive impact on housing and consumer durables, nonland assets, and total expenditures (per adult equivalent). The largest impact of remittances is on the total value of nonland assets (driven by increased acquisition of consumer durables) and on educational expenditures. Thus, despite the costs that parents may incur in sending migrants to other communities, the returns, in terms of remittances, play an important role in enabling investment in assets and human capital in sending communities. Neither migration nor remittances affects current credit constraint status.
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    Assessing the Impact of Massive Out-Migration on Agriculture 2006
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    Over the past several years, rural areas in transition countries have experienced a structural transformation of their agricultural sectors combined with profound demographic changes, primarily due to massive out-migration towards urban areas and abroad. Despite the potential relevance of migration – and the resulting remittances – in fostering, or hindering, transformation in agriculture, very little is understood about the linkages between these activities. Using data from two waves of the Al bania Panel Survey carried out between 2002 and 2003, this paper is an attempt to contribute to a better understanding of the role migration has played in the re-allocation of resources in agriculture among migrant families in Albania, a country which epitomizes the power of change associated with out-migration. As per the hypothesis, our findings suggest that migration exerts a strong downward pressure on agricultural labor per capita. However, the evidence also suggests that the loss in house hold labor in agriculture is compensated by increased access to capital, leading to overall improvements in both agricultural and total incomes.
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    Rural migration in Tunisia
    Drivers and patterns of rural youth migration and its impact on food security and rural livelihoods in Tunisia
    2018
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    The RuMiT (Rural Migration in Tunisia) research addresses the determinants of migration and mobility, the patterns and types of rural youth outmigration and the impact of rural youth migration on rural livelihoods and societies in origin regions in Tunisia. The research used a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods, providing comparative insights into: international and internal migrants and non-migrants; pre- and post-2011 migrants; households with and without migrants. Main results show that migrants from rural areas are increasingly highly educated and leaving to pursue their studies abroad. This particularly applies to women, who also register a decrease in marriage-related migration. Migration proves to be rewarding for both internal and international migrants, in terms of occupational and social security outcomes. In particular, migrant women have higher labour market participation and employment rates than non-migrants. As a direct consequence of an emigration which is still male dominated, households with migrants are increasingly feminized, i.e. with a higher share of women, who are more likely to be active compared with women in nonmigrant households. Migrant households were also found to have higher access to social security. While incomes from remittances tend not to be invested in productive activities, evidence shows that one internal migrant out of four and one international migrant out of three has an economic activity in the areas of origin, which in most of the cases is connected with agricultural or animal production. The Rural Migration in Tunisia (RuMiT) research project was undertaken in the framework of the FAO project “Youth mobility, food security and rural poverty reduction: Fostering rural diversification through enhanced youth employment and better mobility” (GCP/INT/240/ITA) – in brief, the Rural Youth Migration (RYM) project – implemented in Tunisia and Ethiopia between 2015 and 2017, and funded by the Italian Development Cooperation.

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