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Crop residue based densified total mixed ration – A user-friendly approach to utilise food crop










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    Treating straw for animal feeding: the Beckmann method 2008
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    The objective of straw treatment is to increase the digestibility of straw and/or the amount of it voluntarily consumed so that digestible energy intake by animals from straw is increased. Methods of treating straw may be classified broadly into physical, chemical and biological categories. Among physical methods of significance are grinding and pressure cooking. Very fine grinding in ball mills and irradiation, while effective in improving digestibility, are so expensive that they are unlikely ever to become commercially significant. Chemical methods currently being developed all employ alkalis. Other chemicals like chlorine can also be used to improve digestibility but are more expensive and more difficult to handle than the alkalis and no technology involving their use has yet been developed. The alkali treatment methods may be classified as follows. One of the method of treating straw to increase the digestibility is the Beckmann method which belongs to the chemical treatment - wet methods.
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    Feeding and feed management of Indian major carps in Andhra Pradesh, India 2013
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    This study reviews the aquaculture of Indian major carps, rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosus) with special reference to current feeding and feed management practices in Andhra Pradesh, India. The study is based on a survey of 106 farmers from four regions in Andhra Pradesh (Kolleru, Krishna, West Godavari, and Nellore). The study was undertaken between December 2009 to July 2010. Kolleru and the surrounding districts of Krishna and West Godavari ar e the primary culture areas. In Nellore district, Indian major carp culture is practiced at a lower intensity to that practiced in Kolleru. In East Godavari district, Indian major carps are primarily cultured in polyculture systems with either tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) or freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). While the study primarily focused on the feed management practices associated with Indian major carp production, management practices that are used under polycultur e conditions with other species groups were also assessed. The study revealed that mash feed was the most popular and widely used feed type. De-oiled rice bran was used as the principal feed ingredient followed by groundnut cake and cotton seed cake. All the farmers reported using de-oiled rice bran, followed by groundnut cake (56 percent farmers), cotton seed cake (40 percent), raw rice bran (30 percent) and other mash feed ingredients. The poor quality of the mash feed ingredients, especially the de-oiled rice bran, groundnut cake, and cotton seed cake was an important issue of concern to the farmers. Commercially manufactured pellet feeds were used by 33 percent of the farmers to compliment their mash feeds, with the majority electing to use sinking pellets. Since 2007, there has been a marked increase in the use of commercially manufactured aquafeeds, most notably for the large scale production of the striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Grow-out f armers feeding mash feeds used variants of a bag feeding method known as rope and pole feeding. In Nellore district some farmers practiced hapa feeding, while in East Godavari district, farmers fed fish in both the culture ponds (bag feeding) and hapas. Tiger shrimp or freshwater prawns were fed in these ponds using broadcast feeding methods. In the nursery and rearing ponds, the commonly used feed ingredients included groundnut cake, de-oiled rice bran and raw rice bran. The most co mmon feeding practice was broadcast feeding. Rohu broodstock that were collected during the breeding season were fed in a similar manner to the fish in the grow-out production systems. Catla broodstock was segregated from the other culture species, and fed a diet comprising soybean cake, dried fish, and a mineral mixture. Constraints to Indian major carp production were identified, and research and development needs characterized.
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    Establishing residue supply chains to reduce open burning – The case of rice straw and renewable energy in Punjab, India 2022
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    Open burning of crop residues in India is a serious issue that not only impacts human health but is also detrimental to soil health in the long term. According to the estimates from the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, about 500 million tonnes of crop residues are generated annually. While a portion of these residues is used for various purposes, a larger portion is burnt in the fields. The problem seems to be specifically severe in Punjab where a large quantity of rice straw is nurnt after harvesting rice to prepare the field quickly and cheaply for wheat cultivation. It is in this background that the project aimed to support the local government in Punjab and the national government of India to use rice straw productively and avoid open burning. Rice straw is a useful resource that can be used in-situ to maintain soil fertility as well as ex-situ to produce value added products including energy. However, a key challenge in using crop residues, including rice straw, is to mobilize it in systematically. This report presents a model crop residue value chain that can support the collection, transport, storage of rice straw which can enable productive uses of rice straw. Moreover, it estimates the quantity of rice straw produced in each district in Punjab and further estimates the investment needed in developing a crop residue supply chain in the state. Finally, it also undertakes a techno-economic assessment of energy technlogies to identify the most profitable way to use rice straw to produce sustainable energy.

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