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Report of the FAO Expert Workshop on On-farm feeding and feed management in aquaculture. Manila, the Philippines, 13–15 September 2010.










FAO. Report of the FAO Expert Workshop on On-farm feeding and feed management in aquaculture. Manila, the Philippines, 13–15 September 2010. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report. No. 949. Rome, FAO. 2010. 37p.


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    On-farm feeding and feed management in aquaculture 2013
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    This technical paper provides a comprehensive review of on-farm feeding and feed management practices in aquaculture. It comprises of a) ten case studies on feeding and feed management practices carried out in seven selected countries of Asia and Africa for eight species that belong to four major farmed species of freshwater finfish and shellfish; b) an analysis of the findings of the above ten case studies and a separately published case study for Indian major carps carried out in India; c) ten invited specialist reviews on feed management practices from regional and global perspectives; and d) an overview of the current status of feed management practices. The country-specific case studies were carried out for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in China, Thailand, the Philippines, Egypt and Ghana; Indian major carps [rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosus)] in India and Bangladesh, giant river prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in Bangladesh, strip ed catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Viet Nam and black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in India. The broad thematic areas that were addressed in these case studies and invited reviews are: i) current feed types (including fertilizers) and their use in semi-intensive and intensive farming systems; ii) on-farm feed production and management; iii) feeding and feed management strategies, feed procurement, transportation and storage; iv) environmental , economic, regulatory and legal frameworks of feeding and feed management practices; and iv) identification of research needs. Based on the information presented in the eleven case studies, ten specialist reviews and from other relevant publications, an overview paper presents concluding remarks and recommendations on some of the major issues and constraints in optimizing feed production, use and management.
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    Characterization of the aquafeed sub-sector in the Kyrgyz Republic: an aquafeed value chain analysis and preparation of a business plan for establishing a feed mill 2018
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    Among many other factors, feed is a limiting factor, which accounts for a major share of the total operational cost of the aquaculture sector in Kyrgyz Republic. This study aims to analyze the value chain of aquafeed sub-sector including their possible constraints and develop a business plan for establishing small-scale aquafeed mill in the Kyrgyz Republic. This is the first post-USSR country case study which assesses the current status of the aquafeed sub-sector, aquafeed value chain, on-farm feeding and feed management practices, performance of different actors in terms of value addition and profitability, and feed regulations, institutions and policies and presents a business plan for small-scale aquafeed in Kyrgyz Republic. The study identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in this sub-sector, and suggests a number of development strategies which would improve the performance of feed industry and farmers’ access to better feeds and ultimately support the development of aquaculture sector in Kyrgyz Republic. Quantitative data analysis result shows that the Kyrgyz aquafeed sub-sector is still in its infancy and its value chain is very simple; including only few actors comprising feed input suppliers, aquafeed producers, aquafeed traders and fish farmers, and all of them are doing their business profitably. Feed is a crucial input in fish farming which accounts for about 65 – 75 percent of the operational cost of fish production, which means that a substantial part of fish farmers’ income is transferred to feed manufacturers. Good quality feed is a prerequisite for increasing aquaculture productivity in Kyrgyz Republic where particularly fish farmers are using very little volume of commercial feed as supplementary feed. With potential of aquaculture intensification and lack of quality feed, establishment of a commercial feed mill in the country for both carps and trout may have a strong justification. The primary competitors of a new feed mill would be the existing locally manufactured feeds and the commercial feed that are being imported. Imported feeds are mainly for trout and often expensive and not available in the local market throughout the country. Public-private partnership operated feed mill in Kyrgyz Republic with the capacity of 500 kg/hour is expected to be profitable, with an anticipated profit of USD13 617 in year one, rising to USD 97 980 in year five. The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of such a mill is estimated to be 19.1 percent, which is expected to be reasonably good. Therefore, the study recommends establishing a public-private partnership aquafeed mill in Kyrgyz Republic that would be feasible, viable and profitable. The major factors impacting on the performance of the value-chain relate to the feed ingredients, feed production, fish farmers, marketing and other service providers (e.g., financial, academic and research institutions, extension services). Aquafeed value chain shows reasonable promise although there are constrains and a lack of institutional, regulatory and policy environment to oversee this sectoral development. Aquafeed subsector can play an important role in aquaculture sector development as it has strong backward and forward linkages with aquaculture sector, which can eventually play an important role in the overall development of Kyrgyz economy. The study recommends various measures to develop the sub-sector including the establishment of additional feed mills and use of locally available raw feed materials, developing and strengthening quality control and inspection facilities, providing training and better organizational management of fish farms and improving the institutional, legal and policy environment.
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    Expanding mariculture farther offshore - Technical, environmental, spatial and governance challenges 2013
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    This document contains the proceedings of the technical workshop entitled “Expanding mariculture: technical, environmental, spatial and governance challenges”, held from 22 to 25 March 2010, in Orbetello, Italy, and organized by the Aquaculture Branch of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The objective of this workshop was to discuss the growing need to increasingly transfer land-based and coastal aquaculture production systems farther off the coast and provide recommendations for action to FAO, governments and the private sector. The workshop experts proposed general “operational criteria” for defining mariculture activities in three broad categories: (i) coastal mariculture, (ii) off the coast mariculture and (iii) offshore mariculture. Offshore mariculture is likely to offer significant opportunities for food production and development to many coastal countries, especially in regions where the availability o f land, nearshore space and freshwater are limited resources. Mariculture is also recognized as a relevant producer of the protein that the global population will need in the coming decades. It is likely that species with the highest production today, such as salmon, will initially drive the development of offshore mariculture. Nevertheless, the workshop agreed that additional efforts are necessary to define optimal species and improve efforts in the development and transfer of technologies that can facilitate offshore mariculture development. The workshop discussions and reviews indicate large potential for the development of offshore mariculture although more detailed assessments are needed to determine the regions and countries that are most promising for development. It is also recommended that efforts be increased to farm lower trophic levels species and optimize feeds and feeding in order to minimize ecosystems impacts and ensure long-term sustainability. Similarly, risk assessme nts and/or environmental impact assessment and monitoring must always be in place before establishing offshore farms, and permanent environmental monitoring must be ensured. All coastal nations should be prepared to engage actively in developing the technological, legal and financial frameworks needed to support the future development of offshore mariculture to meet global food needs. The workshop report highlights the major opportunities and challenges for a sustainable mariculture industry to grow and further expand off the coast. In particular, the workshop recommended that FAO should provide a forum through which the potential importance of the sea in future food production can be communicated to the public and specific groups of stakeholders and to support its Members and industry in the development needed to expand mariculture to offshore locations. The proceedings include the workshop report and an the accompanying CD–ROM containing six reviews covering technical, environmental, economic and marketing, policy and governance issues, and two case studies on highfin amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) offshore farming in Hawaii (the United States of America) and one on salmon farming in Chile.

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