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Harvesting Man-made Forests in Developing Countries: A Manual on Techniques, Roads, Production and Costs

Swedish Funds-in-Trust. TF-INT 74 (SWE)








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    Logging and Log Transport in Tropical High Forest: A Manual on Production and Costs 1974
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    Written information on methods, production and costs of logging and transport in the developing parts of the world, especially for opetations in tropical high forest, is scarce as compared to that available for industrialized countries. The first purpose of this paper is to focus attention on the analytic approach needed for the quantification of output and cost and on the influence of physical and economic conditions on production. The second purpose is to present production and cost data as fa r as available information permits.
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    Occupational safety and health in forest harvesting and silviculture
    A compendium for practitioners and instructors
    2020
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    The present working paper is primarily intended for producer organizations, trade unions, vocational training institutes, extensionists, instructors and relevant public bodies.The document addresses the forest as a work place, safety culture, workplace assessment, accident prevention and management, child labour, gender issues and selected health and safety issues. Reliable statistics on accident and fatality rates in forestry are missing, data available however indicates that forestry is a high-risk occupation. Workplace conditions in forestry are a function of site conditions, climate, weather, terrain and tree characteristics. The fundamentals of accident prevention are reduced hazard exposure and worker safety training. The first is achieved through risk assessments to identify hazards. Workers should be prepared for accidents at all times. Accident analysis is done to identify what occurred, the causes of the accident and how similar accidents might be avoided in future. Child labour is a human-rights issue and relevant to occupational safety and health. Reliable data on child labour in forestry is almost completely absent. Women in forestry can be exposed more often than men to musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases and reproductive disorders due to chemical exposure. Women generally have a working capacity one-third lower than men. Heat stress occurs when the body is unable to dissipate heat to its surroundings. Heat stroke is the most serious health risk posed by heat stress. Risks and hazards associated with NWFPs derive from activities like climbing, cutting with sharp tools, digging and gathering, picking, and long and/or heavy manual transport.
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    Cost Control in Logging and Road Construction 1986
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    Cost is of vital importance to all industry. Costs can be divided into two general classes; absolute costs and relative costs. Absolute cost measures the loss in value of assets. Relative cost measures the unfavorable side of any decision that is made. Relative cost always involves a comparison between the chosen course of action and the course of action that was rejected. This cost of the alternative action--the action not taken--is often called the "opportunity cost".

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