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NPOA - National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks in the Maldives








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    IPOA - International Plan of Action for reducing incidental catch of seabirds in longline fisheries. International Plan of Action for the conservation and management of sharks. International Plan of Action for the management of fishing capacity. 1999
    The IPOA-SEABIRDS is a voluntary instrument that applies to all States whose fishermen engage in longline fisheries. The text sets out a set of activities which implementing States are expected to carry out, including an assessment of whether a problem exists with respect to the incidental catch of seabirds in its longline fishery, adopting a National Plan of Action for reducing the incidental catch of seabirds in longline fisheries (NPOA-SEABIRDS) as well as procedures for national reviews and reporting requirements. The calendar years by when these actions preferably should have been taken, are indicated . The IPOA-SEABIRDS also provides a summary description of appropriate mitigation measures which States that determine that they have a problem with the incidental catch of seabirds in their longline fisheries, should consider for inclusion in the NPOA-SEABIRDS. The mitigation measures described are either already used or in an early stage of development. References to appropriate literature are provided. The IPOA-SHARKS is a voluntary instrument that applies to all States whose fishermen engage in shark fisheries. The text sets out a set of activities which implementing States are expected to carry out, including an assessment of whether a problem exists with respect to sharks, adopting a National Plan of Action for the conservation and management of sharks (NPOA-SHARKS), as well as procedures for national reviews and reporting requirements. The calendar years by whe n these actions preferably should have been taken, are indicated. The IPOA-CAPACITY is a voluntary instrument that applies to all States whose fishermen engage in capture fisheries. The first part of the text describes the nature and scope of the International Plan of Action, the underlining principles and defines the objective of the IPOA. The remainder of the text describes urgent actions and identifies mechanisms to promote implementation. The urgent actions include assessment and monitori ng of fishing capacity and the preparation and implementation of national plans. The text on mechanisms to promote implementation describes scientific and technical co-operation, national and international reporting, and, the role of FAO. The calendar years by when recommended actions should be completed, have been identified.
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    Malaysia National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Shark (Plan 2) 2014
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    Malaysia has been very supportive of the International Plan of Action for Sharks (IPOA-SHARKS) developed by FAO that is to be implemented voluntarily by countries concerned. This led to the development of Malaysia’s own National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Shark or NPOA-Shark (Plan 1) in 2006. The successful development of Malaysia’s second National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Shark (Plan 2) is a manifestation of her renewed commitment to the continuous improvement of shark conservation and management measures in Malaysia. For the purpose of this document, the term ‘shark’ refers to all chondrichthyan or cartilaginous fishes, comprising sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras. Lessons learnt through the implementation of Plan 1 were used as the basis for the development of Plan 2. In Plan 2, 17 issues were identified and clustered according to their nature. To this end, seven broadly defined practical action plans are proposed to address these issues. Following the action plans, specific programs are outlined and prioritized for implementation over the life of Plan 2. Programs ranked as “High” will have to be carried out within one year, “Medium” within 2-3 years and “Low” in four years.
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    Fisheries management. 1. Conservation and management of sharks 2000
    These Guidelines have been produced to support implementation of the International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (IPOA-Sharks). The Guidelines are addressed to decision-makers and policy-makers associated with conserving shark and other chondrichthyan species and with managing the harvest of these resources, but they should be of interest to fishing industries and other parties. The IPOA-Sharks is consistent with the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, agreements from the 1995 United Nations Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, and any applicable rules of international law. It encompasses all shark and other chondrichthyan fisheries, both target and non-target fisheries, whether they be industrial, artisanal or traditional fisheries or fishing programmes designed to reduce risk of shark attack on humans. The IPOA-Sharks is not a full strategic plan for the world, rather it prescribes a process whereby indiv idual States, States participating in sub-regional arrangements through bilateral and multilateral agreements to manage shared transboundary shark stocks, and relevant regional fisheries management organizations (RFMO), identify national, subregional and regional issues and then develop national and regional Shark Plans to address the issues. The guiding principles of the IPOA-Sharks and the Guidelines are that States contributing to fishing mortality of a species or stock should participate i n its conservation and management, and that, as a traditional and important source of food, employment and income, shark resources be used sustainably. The precautionary approach to conservation and management is embraced when the status of a resource is uncertain, such as when fishery data are insufficient or unreliable.

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