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International groundwater resources law












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    Book (series)
    Groundwater in international law
    Compilation of treaties and other legal instuments
    2005
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    Groundwater is of high social, economic, environmental and strategic importance. It represents about ninety-seven percent of the fresh water resources available on earth, excluding the water locked in the polar ice. Aquifers, among them numerous transboundary ones, are coming under growing pressure from over-abstraction and pollution, which seriously threaten their sustainability. Up to now international law has paid much less attention to ground- than to surface water. Slowly however, a body o f rules dealing with this vital resource is emerging that indicates a trend towards more comprehensive international regulation. This publication brings together binding and non-binding international law instruments that, in varying degrees and from different angles, deal with groundwater. Its aim is to report developments in international law and to contribute to detecting law in-the-making in this important field.
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    National Regulations for Groundwater: Options, Issues and Best Practices 1999
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    The sustainable management and use of groundwater resources as a source of drinking water supplies, for irrigation, and for other consumptive uses, as well as a supplementary source of surface river flows and of wetlands and wildlife habitats, calls for increasing attention to two major and interdependent sources of concern, namely, depletion and pollution. This paper reviews and analyzes national legislation believed to be representative of the available choice of mechanisms or options availa ble to the lawmakers in the framing of responses to the challenges posed by groundwater depletion and pollution and illustrates emerging best practices and attendant issues.
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    Document
    Pacific Island Fisheries - regional and country information 2002
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      In general, the Pacific Islands increase in size from east to west. Most islands rise steeply from the deep ocean floor and have very little underwater shelf area. Coral reefs characteristically surround the islands, either close to the shore (fringing reef) or further offshore (barrier reef), in which case a coastal lagoon is enclosed. The area includes many atolls, which are the remnt barrier reefs of islands that have subsided. Some of the more recent islands in the area lack coral reefs. M angrove forests often border the inshore waters, especially of the larger islands, and provide habitat for the juveniles of many important food fish. Because of the relatively small size of most islands, major bodies of fresh water are not widespread in the sub-region, with substantial rivers and lakes only being found in some of the larger islands of Melanesia. The small land areas of most islands create limited freshwater and nutrient runoff, resulting in low enrichment of the nearby sea. The ocean waters of the area are usually clear and low in productivity. Upwellings occur in the boundaries between currents and in other localized areas, and have important implications for the harvesting of marine resources. The dispersed ture of the region’s land among this vast area of water has several consequences for fisheries magement. In regard to inshore resources, the presence of numerous patches of land and their associated coastal and coral reef areas, separated by large distances and so metimes abyssal depths, means that many species with limited larval dispersal can be effectively maged as unit stocks. On the other hand, magement of shared stocks of highly migratory species such as tus can only be effective if carried out on a multi-country basis. The presence of extensive areas of intertiol waters (high seas) among the region’s EEZs greatly complicates the region’s fishery magement efforts. Fishery Statistics in the Region The long time series of FAO catch statistics used in the compilation of the Catch Profiles for other regions are aggregated by FAO Statistical Area and thus cannot be used where the region to be reviewed incorporates parts of one or more areas, as is the case with the Pacific Islands. In addition, much of the region’s tu catch is taken by distant-water fishing tions (DWFNs) and is thus reported by FAO in the catches of other statistical areas. 

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