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Indonesia’s agriculture sector performance during the COVID-19 pandemic: Towards a resilient agrifood system










FAO. 2023. Indonesia’s agriculture sector performance during the COVID-19 pandemic: Towards a resilient agrifood system. Jakarta.



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    Book (stand-alone)
    Agricultural trade & policy responses during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 2021
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    Measures adopted around the world to contain the COVID-19 outbreak helped curb the spread of the virus and lowered the pressure on health systems. However, they also affected the global trading system, and the supply and demand of agricultural and food products. In response to concerns over food security and food safety worldwide, many countries reacted immediately to apply policy measures aiming to limit potentially adverse impacts on domestic markets. Covering the first half of 2020, the report provides an overview of short-term changes in trade patterns and policy measures related to agricultural trade that countries adopted in response to the pandemic. Despite the shocks caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and containment measures, the efforts of governments and agricultural sector stakeholders to keep agricultural markets open and trade flowing smoothly contributed to remarkably resilient value chains. Effects on global trade in food and agriculture remained limited to short-term disruptions at the very beginning of the pandemic. Governments’ policy responses covered a wide range of measures, including export restrictions, lowering of import barriers, and domestic measures. Most of the trade restricting measures were short-lived. International political commitments were pivotal in the coordination of a global response to the crisis and in deterring countries from taking unilateral measures that could have harmed food security in other parts of the world. However, COVID-19 is still spreading and may entail severe implications for access to food and longer-term shifts in global demand and supply of food and agricultural commodities.
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    Book (series)
    Realigning policy interventions on agricultural prices
    Monitoring incentives in low- and middle-income countries during the first wave of COVID-19
    2022
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    COVID-19 has resulted in a shock to agrifood systems around the world, with the potential for low- and middle-income countries to be particularly affected. Although policy responses were more muted than during the 2007–2008 world food crisis, efforts to insulate from supply shocks and ensure local availability during COVID-19 have generally included export restrictions and import tariff reductions, among other responses. In an effort to enable rapid market monitoring and realignment, we develop a new indicator defined as a monthly nominal rate of protection “express” which seeks to isolate as much as possible the effect of trade and market policies on domestic prices in real-time in order to understand how they responded. This analysis examines changes to this indicator during the first wave of the pandemic in 27 low- and middle-income countries for the most-consumed staple cereals of the poor and food insecure. We show that agricultural price incentives declined by 12.6 percentage points compared to the same months in previous years, suggesting that retail domestic price spikes may have largely been mitigated or avoided. However, impacts varied across countries and commodities, and this indicator can serve as a tool for examining primary drivers of changes and conducting causal analysis to facilitate adequate agrifood policy responses to support economic recovery in the post-COVID-19 era.
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    Document
    FAO ECTAD Laporan Tahunan 2013 2013
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    Poultry production, and its associated activities, account for around one percent of Indonesia’s gross domestic product and provide the majority of animal protein consumed by 232 million Indonesians. A complex array of poultry enterprises, ranging from intensive commercial enterprises, to small-scale semi-intensive broiler and layer enterprises, to small backyard flockssupply poultry meat and eggs to Indonesian consumers, predominantly through traditional markets countrywide. Some 60% of all I ndonesian households keep poultry for food, additional income, entertainment ceremonial purposes. Since Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) was detected in Indonesia in 2003, the disease has infected poultry in 32 out of 34 provinces, caused the deaths of millions of poultry, and disrupted the livelihoods of large numbers of people dependent on poultry keeping. Outbreaks continue to be reported regularly on islands with dense human and poultry populations, such as Java and Sumatra, and more sporadically in Sulawesi and Bali. Despite significantdecreases in the number of HPAI outbreaks reported since 2009, HPAI continues to present a major challenge to poultry production. An annualized poultry population of approximately 1.5 billion, a large culturally and ethnically diverse human population of around 232 million, a preference for purchasing poultry products from live bird markets, and a decentralized governance system, have all contributed to the persistence of the disease. Indone sia is the most recent country in Southeast Asia to report a new incursion of clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 virus in 2012, confiming the continued risk of expansion of newly emerging virus clades from endemic areas to new areas and the need for countries at risk to maintain vigilance. This clade 2.3.2.1 virus spread rapidly from Java to Sumatra, Bali and Sulawesi and is now fimly entrenched in Indonesia. Detections of H5 virus from environmental sampling of live bird markets in Jabodetabek in the second ha lf of 2013 show an increase in the number of markets evidencing environmental contamination. Both clade clade 2.1.3 and clade 2.3.2.1 viruses have been detected in environmental samples and are currently showing equal prevalence in Jabodetabek LBMs, indicating that both clades are co-circulating in the catchment areas of these poultry market chains. Co-circulation of both virus clades, causing outbreaks in both chicken and duck flocks, emphasises the need to review vaccination policy and the vac cine formulations which must be made available to poultry farmers to adequately protect their flocks. The Emergence of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) in China in April 2013 stresses the need for continuing surveillance for avian influenza viruses and provided an opportunity for an assessment of the risk of the introduction of this virus to Indonesia. Risk assessment and contingency planning for the introduction of emerging influenza viruses is now an on-going task of the DAH with support f rom FAO at both the country and regional levels. The FAO Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD) Programme in Indonesia works to enhance the capacity and ability of the Government of Indonesia to implement its Avian Influenza Control Programme to sustainably control HPAI at village level, in the commercial poultry industry and along the market chain in order to help safeguard the health and livelihoods of the Indonesian population and reduce the global pandemic threat. Rabies is endemic in several parts of Indonesia. Bali had been rabies free until the disease was first confirmed in humans and in dogs in November 2008. FAO developed a Programme of three rabies projects with the DGLAHS, funded through the FAO Indonesia country programme, AusAID and USAID. The objectives of the Bali rabies control programme were to control rabies using a One Health approach targeting control in dogs and case management in humans through collaborative, cross-sectoral and multid isciplinary mechanisms progressing towards eventual elimination of the disease. The successful implementation of four mass dog vaccination campaigns in 2010-2013 has resulted in an impressive reduction in human rabies cases, with just one human case reported in 2013; a substantial reduction in dog cases has also occurred with only 40 cases recorded in 2013 compared to 120 in 2012. A new rabies project funded by WSPA, to support control and elimination of the disease in Flores and Lembata Islands , NTT Province, was agreed and signed by the DGLAHS in November and activities are now underway. This 2013 Annual Report provides an overview of the activities carried out under the ECTAD Programme in collaboration with and in support of the Ministry of Agriculture and local government livestock and animal health services in Indonesia to control both HPAI and rabies. Achievements in HPAI control across the key theme areas of strengthening veterinary services, capacity building, improving poultr y health, and public private partnerships are presented. Activities related to the rabies programme are presented under the strengthening veterinary services theme. The activities and achievements described in this report were funded by a number of donors and their contribution and commitment are gratefully acknowledged.

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