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Gender and Farming Systems - Lessons from Nicaragua







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    Lessons Learned on Diversification Experiences in the Special Programmes for Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa 2011
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    This study aims to learn from short-cycle animal husbandry experiences within the framework of the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) implemented in sub-Saharan Africa in order to disseminate good practices through new initiatives, for example: the National Programme for Food Security (NPFS); the Regional Programme for Food Security (RPFS); agricultural development projects; and the implementation of new policies on livestock breeding. Furthermore, the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) includes national and regional agricultural investment projects comprising livestock. With specific reference to the “diversification” subcomponent of the SPFS, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has more than 10 years’ experience in setting up and monitoring semi-intensive breeding units at different levels based on the concept of sustainability and replicability; it has moved on from approaches that failed to ac hieve technical progress in traditional breeding in Africa. In the diversification component, the following short-cycle domestic species have been bred in semi-intensive units: small ruminants and poultry (chickens, ducks and guinea fowl). This innovative methodology has attracted the attention of various national and international donors who have provided considerable support. This study assesses activities carried out in 11 countries of Central and West Africa: Mali, Chad, Niger, Burkina Faso, Togo, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Burundi, Central African Republic and Senegal. The projects are assessed to make a comparative analysis of the technological options adopted (in terms of production, feeding and marketing). Lessons have been learned and best practices identified; the advantages and disadvantages of different techniques in the light of the results obtained with local populations (in particular, women and youth organizations in the rural and urban communities) are analysed.
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    Levelling the farm fields: A cross-country study of the determinants of gender-based yield gaps
    Background paper for The status of women in agrifood systems
    2024
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    The State of Food and Agriculture 2010–11 brought to global attention the problem of female farmers lagging in terms of agricultural productivity compared with male farmers. This study returns to the question of gender-based differences in farm productivity, decomposing differences in farm yields between males and females. We identify one part of the gap explained by differences in attributes and access to productive assets, and another part explained by differences in returns to assets and attributes (i.e. “unexplained” differences). This paper applies the Kitagawa-Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition to gender-based productivity gaps using nationally representative household surveys from 11 developing countries in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. We estimate productivity models for each country utilizing a comparable set of explanatory assets and attributes. We also implement a comparable decomposition of observed productivity gaps. The cross-country analysis shows that observed total gaps in productivity by gender do not always favour male farmers; the decomposition of these gaps, however, reveals that female farmers face gender-specific constraints that manifest as lower returns to attributes and assets.This background paper was prepared to inform Chapter 2 of FAO’s report on The status of women in agrifood systems.
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    Gender, water and agriculture
    Assessing the nexus in Palestine
    2023
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    Gender inequality in Palestine has contributed to the marginalization of women from access and control over available resources including water. This inequality has been entrenched through legal, political and social systems. Palestine’s Gender-Responsive Water Assessment was carried out in the West Bank in 2021 by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in partnership with the Palestinian Authority (PA)- Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) as part of the “Implementing the 2030 Agenda for Water Efficiency, Productivity and Water Sustainability in NENA [North East and North Africa] Countries (GCP/RNE/009/SWE)” project. The project had recommended gender-responsive water assessments to evaluate the relative situation of women and men in different communities regarding water access, governance and use in the countries targeted by the interventions. The aim of the assessment was to outline areas where future investments and programme interventions in water and agriculture would be needed to support progress towards gender equality and sustainable water resource management in a synergistic way. In addition to a review of the existing literature, the study gathered information at the field level, assessing five local communities in the northern West Bank.

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