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HIV Infections and zoonoses











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    Book (stand-alone)
    Infections au VIH et zoonoses 2007
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    Le syndrome d’immunodéficience acquise (SIDA) a été identifié pour la première fois en 1981 comme un groupe d’infections opportunistes sans précédent qui apparaît chez des individus dont le système immunitaire n’est pas prédisposé à un disfonctionnement (Durack, 1981). Les interactions entre les animaux et l’homme sont particulièrement complexes et le personnel soignant devrait être conscient du rôle potentiel que jouent les animaux dans les maladies infectieuses chez les patients infectés par le VIH. Ce lien ne se limite pas au contact direct entre l’homme et les animaux, il peut aussi être indirect. Dans le cas d’une transmission indirecte, des schémas complexes sont généralement en cause et il est important de les connaître pour mieux comprendre l’épidémiologie des infections liées au VIH et pour dispenser un soutien médical adéquat aux patients infectés.
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    Booklet
    A key role for veterinary authorities and animal health practitioners in preventing and controlling neglected parasitic zoonoses
    A handbook with focus on Taenia solium, Trichinella, Echinococcus and Fasciola
    2021
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    Neglected parasitic zoonoses, such as cysticercosis and echinococcosis, are a group of zoonoses that continue to impose a significant burden and affect livelihoods of the vulnerable populations that typically have limited access to adequate sanitation, basic living conditions, health and veterinary services and awareness. Recognising the disease burden and importance of a multisectoral approach to controlling and eliminating neglected parasitic zoonoses, in 2018 the Regional Tripartite jointly organised a regional workshop on neglected foodborne parasitic zoonoses. To control zoonoses in an efficient, effective and sustainable way, it is important to understand the transmission cycle of each disease and to implement strategic interventions at key stages via multisectoral participation from public health, animal health, environmental health and food safety. Prevention and control of infection in animals is one of the critical means to reduce the burden of zoonoses in humans, therefore the animal health sector has a very important role to play. However, awareness and knowledge are often limited among veterinary authorities, public health practitioners, animal health practitioners and animal owners. This handbook focuses on interventions that the animal health sector can implement to prevent human and animal disease caused by these parasites. It aims to provide up-to-date information in a concise form and is expected to encourage the relevant stakeholders to take actions to control and prevent neglected parasitic zoonoses. Although the handbook was written primarily for Asia and the Pacific region, the information is relevant in many other regions. We hope you find this handbook useful and practical.
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    Article
    Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem, 2015–2019 2021
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    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of goats and sheep that occurs in Africa, the Middle East and Asia with a severe impact on livelihoods and livestock trade. Many wild artiodactyls are susceptible to PPR virus (PPRV) infection, and some outbreaks have threatened endangered wild populations. The role of wild species in PPRV epidemiology is unclear, which is a knowledge gap for the Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication of PPR. These studies aimed to investigate PPRV infection in wild artiodactyls in the Greater Serengeti and Amboseli ecosystems of Kenya and Tanzania. Out of 132 animals purposively sampled in 2015–2016, 19.7% were PPRV seropositive by ID Screen PPR competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA; IDvet, France) from the following species: African buffalo, wildebeest, topi, kongoni, Grant’s gazelle, impala, Thomson’s gazelle, warthog and gerenuk, while waterbuck and lesser kudu were seronegative. In 2018–2019, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected African buffalo and Grant’s gazelle herds was conducted. The weighted estimate of PPRV seroprevalence was 12.0% out of 191 African buffalo and 1.1% out of 139 Grant’s gazelles. All ocular and nasal swabs and faeces were negative by PPRV real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Investigations of a PPR-like disease in sheep and goats confirmed PPRV circulation in the area by rapid detection test and/or RT-qPCR. These results demonstrated serological evidence of PPRV infection in wild artiodactyl species at the wildlife–livestock interface in this ecosystem where PPRV is endemic in domestic small ruminants. Exposure to PPRV could be via spillover from infected small ruminants or from transmission between wild animals, while the relatively low seroprevalence suggests that sustained transmission is unlikely. Further studies of other major wild artiodactyls in this ecosystem are required, such as impala, Thomson’s gazelle and wildebeest.

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