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Drivers and impact of rural outmigration in Tunisia

Key findings from the research "Rural Migration in Tunisia" (RuMiT)










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    Book (stand-alone)
    Rural migration in Tunisia
    Drivers and patterns of rural youth migration and its impact on food security and rural livelihoods in Tunisia
    2018
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    The RuMiT (Rural Migration in Tunisia) research addresses the determinants of migration and mobility, the patterns and types of rural youth outmigration and the impact of rural youth migration on rural livelihoods and societies in origin regions in Tunisia. The research used a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods, providing comparative insights into: international and internal migrants and non-migrants; pre- and post-2011 migrants; households with and without migrants. Main results show that migrants from rural areas are increasingly highly educated and leaving to pursue their studies abroad. This particularly applies to women, who also register a decrease in marriage-related migration. Migration proves to be rewarding for both internal and international migrants, in terms of occupational and social security outcomes. In particular, migrant women have higher labour market participation and employment rates than non-migrants. As a direct consequence of an emigration which is still male dominated, households with migrants are increasingly feminized, i.e. with a higher share of women, who are more likely to be active compared with women in nonmigrant households. Migrant households were also found to have higher access to social security. While incomes from remittances tend not to be invested in productive activities, evidence shows that one internal migrant out of four and one international migrant out of three has an economic activity in the areas of origin, which in most of the cases is connected with agricultural or animal production. The Rural Migration in Tunisia (RuMiT) research project was undertaken in the framework of the FAO project “Youth mobility, food security and rural poverty reduction: Fostering rural diversification through enhanced youth employment and better mobility” (GCP/INT/240/ITA) – in brief, the Rural Youth Migration (RYM) project – implemented in Tunisia and Ethiopia between 2015 and 2017, and funded by the Italian Development Cooperation.
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    Project
    Promoting alternatives to migration for rural youth in Ethiopia and Tunisia - GCP/INT/240/ITA 2019
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    Poverty, food insecurity and a lack of employment opportunities drive many young men and women around the world to search for jobs elsewhere. In Africa, where youth underemployment and unemployment rates are particularly high, many young people move away from rural areas, also because they do not perceive agriculture as an attractive and remunerative sector. The project aimed to address the adverse drivers of migration in two target countries, Tunisia and Ethiopia, which are particularly prone to rural outmigration of youth, while at the same time harnessing the development potential of migratory movements. In particular, the project focused on the promotion of innovative mechanisms to create job and entrepreneurial opportunities in rural areas. It also filled evidence gaps on the determinants and impacts of rural migration and promoted better policy integration between migration, agriculture and rural development.
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    Booklet
    Promoting alternatives to migration for rural youth in Tunisia and Ethiopia
    Youth mobility, food security and rural poverty reduction (RYM) project
    2018
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    Each year, rural areas lose a promising share of their workforce, as youth leave their homes and migrate to cities or move abroad in search of a better future. The distress induced by poverty, food insecurity and a lack of employment opportunities push many youth around the world to search for jobs elsewhere. By addressing the links between distress migration and rural development, FAO is making a difference in Tunisia and Ethiopia. With funding from the Italian Development Cooperation, the Rural Youth Mobility Project (RYM) was launched in 2015 to provide unemployed youth in migration-prone areas the two countries with the necessary training and equipment to start their rural enterprises. The aim is to promote innovative pathways for youth employment and entrepreneurship in rural areas. This publication describes the impact of the Project on rural communities in Tunisia and Ethiopia, through the testimonies of the young beneficiaries.

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