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Indian butter tree: An excellent source of nutrition and livelihood generation

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022










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    Article
    Scientific interventions for sustainable mountain development: A case study with Polygonatum verticillatum Linn.
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Polygonatum verticillatum Linn. is a well-documented rejuvenating herb, and presently reported as endangered. Under a scientific strategy for sustainable use to serve as exemplary, a gene bank of 150 accessions assembled from Western Himalayas (2200 to 3600 m amsl), without causing genetic erosion, was established at Forest Research Institute High Altitude Herbal Garden, Chakarata, Uttarakhand at 2600 m amsl. The accessions were analysed for morphological traits, growth parameters and phytochemical profiles to screen promising genotypes. The diversity studies based on morphological and chemical markers revealed a high level of diversity among the sampled populations. Phytochemical analysis discovered varying quantities of flavonoids, saponins, quinones, phenols, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids and fatty acids amongst the genotypes. The GC-MS profiling divulged γ-sitosterol (antidiabetic), diosgenin (progesterone precursor, neurological disorder), stigmasterol, β-sitosterol (Covid-19) and ethyl and methyl linoleate. Significant correlations were obtained among morphological parameters. However, none of the morphological traits could be significantly correlated with presence or amount of any biochemical obtained in the phytochemical analysis. The field expedition exposed serious illegal trading of this herb through local community in pretext of providing employment but with irrationally low wages leading to rampant exploitation. The psychotherapy depicted lack of proper knowledge in local communities as well as absence of proper value chains and policies for sustainable use of forest resources. Indian mountains and forests are treasure house to livelihood, yet unemployment forces migration of locals, which further enhanced under Covid-19 Pandemic. Availability of authentic source of bio- diverse and genetically promising stocks can play a complementary role in encouraging locals towards farming of medicinal plants, thereby achieving greater sustainability. Keywords: Biodiversity conservation, Genetic resources, Illegal trade, Innovation, Deforestation and forest degradation. ID: 3486301
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    Smell the disease - Developing rapid, high-throughput and non-destructive screening methods for early detection of alien invasive forest pathogens and pests featuring next-generation technologies
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Global forests are increasingly threatened by alien invasive pathogens and pests. The magnitude of this threat is expected to further increase in the future, due to the warmer climate and more extensive global transports and trade of plants. Pests and pathogens are often introduced to new areas by trade with ornamental plants as intermediate hosts, and there is a great need to modernize the tools for detection of alien species in imported plants and in monitoring of those that are already established in our forests. To achieve this goal, research in forest pathology is focused on combining recent technological advances in robotics, next generation sequencing, and mass spectroscopic methods with knowledge about the specific metabolic responses in the pests and pathogens and the trees that they infest. Gas Chromatography (GC) Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) adsorbed on Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) fibers is one promising method with potential for high-throughput detection of larger plant shipments. By the establishment of a library of chemical fingerprints characterizing specific pests and pathogens, one could non-destructively scan a large number of plants in ports or nurseries to eliminate presence of disease. The species-specific combination of VOCs can be utilized to prevent introduction of harmful pests and pathogens to new markets. One pathogen considered as a quarantine species and a serious threat on-the-horizon for coniferous forests is Pine Pitch Canker (PPC), a fungal pathogen affecting a variety of pine species with devastating economical and biological consequences, especially if it were to be established in a country like Sweden where about 38% of the standing forest volume consist of pine. Pathogens like this one are already introduced in several European countries, and need to be monitored and identified early to prevent further forest damage – a challenge that Forest pathologists have accepted. Keywords: Climate change, Sustainable forest management, Research, Monitoring and data collection, Deforestation and forest degradation ID: 3499048
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    Article
    Van panchayats of Uttarakhand as role model for community forest management
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Community forests, in a sharp contrast to government forest or private forest, are by and large severely degraded and subject to deforestation easily. They manifest ‘tragedy of the commons’ (Hardin, 1968). Contradicting this conventional wisdom is the institution of Van Panchayats, in the Himalayan state of Uttarakhand in India. Their history is that of conflict (against rigid government control) to collaboration (on community management and control). Van Panchayats are village level, democratically elected, grass root level natural resource management bodies. They have successfully cleared all the three aspects of sustainability, that is: social acceptability, technical feasibility, and economic viability. Starting with few in 1930's, their number has swelled to 12,089 and cover more than 7,350.85 square kilometre area which is approximately 13.41% of the total forest area of Uttarakhand. They are easily one of the best examples of participation of all stakeholders including women, weaker and marginalized sections of the society, in the management, decision making, and sharing of usufructs. In externally aided projects by the World Bank, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JAICA), their role has been appreciated and they have been assigned various key works of connservation/development. Various nongovernmental organizations have also lauded the contribution of Van Panchayats at various forums. More management inputs and facilitation by government orders to ensure implementation of all village level schemes through them is required to make them still more vibrant and self-sustaining. Van Panchayats are the practical manifestation of the thoughts echoed by Nobel Laureate Elinor Ostrom (2002) demonstrating how local communities can use natural resources in a judicious and commonly acceptable manner. With suitable modifications they can be used worldwide for management of community lands for sustainable environmental, ecological, and economic benefits. Keywords: Social protection, Conflict, Deforestation and forest degradation, Sustainable forest management, Gender ID: 3484260

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