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Building Production Chain Diagrams in Excel











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    Book (stand-alone)
    Good agricultural practices (GAP)
    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
    2024
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    Groundnut, a significant oilseed crop in Myanmar, is predominantly cultivated by subsistence farmers in all the three regions of the Central Dry Zone. However, it has untapped potential for increased productivity, quality, and market competitiveness through improved crop technologies and the adoption of good agricultural practices (GAP). The adoption of GAP techniques, harmonious with natural agroecosystems and Indigenous Peoples' knowledge, including organic manuring, integrated pest management (IPM), and climate-resilient crop varieties, can be easily adopted by resource-poor farmers. Effective management of limited resources is achievable by careful selection and use of high-quality, environmentally safe inputs like seeds and fertilizers. The current emphasis on consumer awareness necessitates safe, quality food production and resource efficiency, emphasizing the need for better organization of groundnut growers through project-guided marketing to sustain productivity and increase income. Under the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations’ Global Agriculture and Food Security Climate-Friendly Agribusiness Value Chain (FAO-GAFSP-CFAVC) Programme, GAP dissemination for target crops, including groundnut, is a priority. This involves upgrading existing GAP standards based on Myanmar's and ASEAN's practices. The enhanced GAP version focuses on food safety, produce quality, worker health and safety, and environmental management. Implementing GAP will not only enhance food safety and quality but also promote ecological sustainability in groundnut production cropping systems. Validation and contextualization were achieved through comprehensive research, stakeholder discussions, and insights from relevant stakeholders, including FAO experts. GAP rollout involves capacity building among lead farmer organizations, public–private partners, and value chain actors. The framework covers pre- and post-harvest practices for safe, quality groundnut production tailored to small and medium farmers. Key messages facilitate agronomic management practices, supported by farmer organizations, sensitization, technical assistance, and market linkages. On-farm demonstrations, Farmer Field Schools (FFS), training, and information and communications technology (ICT) tools supplement GAP promotion. Existing user-friendly integrated pest management (IPM) handbooks and FFS curriculum for groundnut support the framework, leveraging farmers' capacity building and complementing affiliated GAP initiatives.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Approaches to controlling, preventing and eliminating H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in endemic countries 2011
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    At its peak in 2006, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by viruses of the H5N1 subtype was reported in over 60 countries. Since then, most affected countries have eliminated the disease. However, in Bangladesh, the People’s Republic of China, Egypt, India, Indonesia and Viet Nam, the virus has remained entrenched and these countries continue to be endemic for the disease.The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in association with national authorities, ha s developed a framework, based on experiences gained so far in endemically infected countries and covering activities that, if adopted, will help to move each country along the path towards virus elimination. Each framework comprises a mix of measures aimed at outbreak control and responses; gathering and analyzing information from surveillance, disease investigations and other epidemiological studies and market chain studies; and disease prevention and risk reduction.As the virus is unl ikely to be eliminated from poultry for some time the risk of emergence of a human pandemic strain from an avian virus will persist and will need management. The extended time frame until the virus can be eliminated provides opportunities for research into new and innovative measures for the control and prevention of H5N1 HPAI and other influenza viruses. This includes better vaccines that can be delivered easily to poultry production sectors; methods of developing virus resistance in poultry th rough genetic manipulation and selection; and universal influenza vaccines for humans that protect against different influenza virus subtypes, thus minimizing the threat posed by the virus to human health.
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    Book (series)
    Evaluation of the Information on Nutrition, Food Security and Resilience for Decision Making (INFORMED) Programme
    Project code: GCP/INT/245/EC
    2021
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    The INFORMED programme, implemented by FAO from 2015 to 2019, was designed to contribute to “increasing the resilience of livelihoods to threats and crises and contributing to the reduction of food insecurity and malnutrition”. The programme’s increased focused on Early Warning for Early Action (EWEA) was very relevant to fill existing gaps with a comparative advantage for FAO in slow onset and food chain crises contexts. Promoting the use of pre-agreed plans and pre-identified anticipatory actions, the project effectively improved risk analysis and decision making, including through the Global Report on Food Crises, and increased access to appropriate financing instruments, while the EWEA country toolkit initial positive spinoffs remain to be built on. Efforts to support resilience measurement and analyses by applying the resilience index measurement and analysis (RIMA) methodology are relevant given the significant investments in resilience programming and the continuing methodological gaps. However, although RIMA provides a basis for creating evidence on resilience investments, and FAO has been an important pioneer in resilience measurement, a wider system supporting resilience analysis is needed, based on a range of methodologies, responding to the information needs of decision-makers. Also, RIMA baseline lacks sufficient detail to allow articulating the feasibility of possible response options and have a practical impact on planning decisions; it has not demonstrated its added value over pre-existing food security, nutrition and risk indicators to help target interventions, and is not well adapted as an impact evaluation tool. Assessing INFORMED results against its intention to support knowledge production and sharing, to promote the replication of good practices and circular learning, the evaluation questioned the choice of creating a new knowledge management platform versus adopting a collaborative approach building on similar initiatives’ strengths. Poor strategic choices represented a fundamental constraint to reach intended objectives, such as, an insufficient understanding of users explaining the difficulty to trace the uptake and use of knowledge products. Nevertheless, the evaluation recognized the progressive investments in knowledge management and sizeable accomplishments of a relatively small team. The evaluation suggests strengthening capacities for the production and dissemination of forecast, scenario-based early warning as a basis for early action; developing a corporate strategy for partnering to strengthen early warning system capacities at various levels; promoting the use of a toolkit of approaches and investing in a knowledge management function dedicated to capturing and disseminating lessons on the effectiveness of EWEA and resilience interventions.

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