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Rural womens access to land in Latin America








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    Women in the Banana Export Industry. Regional Report on West & Central Africa.
    Working paper. Series for the World Banana Forum.
    2015
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    ‘Women in the Banana Export Industry Regional Report on West & Central Africa’ is part of a global report on the economic aspects of gender issues in the banana sector. It analyses key issues for women workers with a particular focus on women’s employment in the region. The main roles carried out by women in the workplace are identified as are any advances towards Decent Work that have been made through multi stakeholder and project activity in West and Central Africa. The report will inform the gender work of the World Banana Forum. Women’s employment in the region varies from 11% in Côte d'Ivoire, to 21% in Cameroon. This is in part explained by the dominant operator in Ghana and Cameroon, Compagnie Fruitiere, being more restrictive of women’s employment in the field. The key issues for women across all three countries in the study (Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, and Cameroon) were low wages, hours of work, health and safety (in particular for pregnant women and nursing mothers, sexual harass ment and lack of childcare provision. Women experience a triple burden as plantation worker, domestic worker and child carer. In Cameroon and Ghana women reported earning less than men. Lack of education and training is a key barrier to better employment opportunities for women which companies are beginning to address. The Collective Bargaining Agreement between GAWU and Golden Exotics Ltd was an example of best practice, aiming to create a ’women friendly’ environment. Unions involved in the re port are active in gender training initiatives for women workers and representatives in partnership with British NGO, Banana Link, and the IUF. The African case shows that gender does not need to prevent women being employed in banana operations in both the field and packhouse, increasing job opportunities for women, although further research is needed to assess the impacts of greater numbers of women being employed in the field.
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    Strengthened Economic Inclusion of Women-Led Agribusinesses through Enhanced Access to Knowledge and Productive Resources Including Finance - TCP/ANG/3803 2023
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    Women account for 52 percent of the population of Angola However, despite advances in their empowerment, Angolan women continue to struggle with social, economic and political inequalities that put them in a situation of discrimination and vulnerability Although most of the country’s working age population 15 64 years of age) is composed of women, they represent less than half 34 1 percent) of the workforce The unemployment rate among women at national level is approximately 24 9 percent In rural areas, women undertake at least 70 per cent of subsistence agriculture work However, most of this is informal, either as wage workers or family workers, without secure employment contracts and usually lacking workers’ benefits, social protection or workers’ representation The population below the poverty line rose from 41 percent in 2019 to 54 percent in 2020 Poverty is far more severe and widespread in rural areas 87 8 percent) than urban areas 35 percent) and is two percent higher in female headed households than in male headed households In rural areas, around one third of households are headed by women these represent the majority of households living in extreme poverty, comprising 60 percent of the poorest 20 percent of the population.
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    Women in the Banana Export Industry. Regional Report on Latin America.
    Working paper. Series for the World Banana Forum.
    2015
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    Women in the Banana Export Industry Regional Report on Latin America is part of a global report on the economic aspects of gender issues in the banana sector. It is based on research conducted in Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras, Guatemala and Nicaragua with a primary focus on the situation for hired labour and analyses levels of women’s employment in the region and the key challenges for women workers. The report will inform the work of the World Banana Forum1. The average proportion of women employ ed in the Latin American banana industry is 12.5%, although this varies within and between countries. A key reason for this low rate of women's employment in the sector is the limited access of women to the whole range of work tasks on the plantation. Women tend to be restricted to work in the 'more controlled environment' of the packing shed in part due to the gender stereotyping of women. Many field tasks are perceived to be too technically difficult or too physically demanding for women to un dertake but tend to be better paid. Women are viewed primarily as domestic actors and childcare providers. The occupational health and safety risks for women identified are particularly those related to the effects of agrochemical exposure on reproductive health. Other problems faced by women workers are sexual harassment, discrimination when pregnant, a lack of childcare provision and the additional burdens faced by women managing childcare, domestic duties and in some cases, trade union activi ty. A lack of access to training (in skills required to undertake field tasks) is an obstacle to women accessing employment. It is recommended that women are consulted to assess which tasks they can do and that this learning could inform guidance for employers. The initiatives led by women trade unionists throughout the region are highlighted as some examples of best practice in terms of increasing and improving employment for women. Company practices to improve women’s treatment in the workplac e, such as the only sexual harassment policy in the region (adopted by Chiquita), are also assessed. It is noted that the socio economic impact of the low proportion of women’s employment, especially given the high rate of women as single heads of household, requires analysis. The report concludes by recommending the World Banana Forum as a multi stakeholder environment in which (the Women’s Secretariats of) independent trade unions and companies can work together to develop and share strategies to increase the provision of Decent Work for women in the banana sector.

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