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Monitoring poverty without consumption data: An application using the Albania panel survey








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    Moving away from poverty: A spatial analysis of poverty and migration in Albania 2005
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    This paper analyses recent patterns of migration and poverty in Albania, a country that ‑ following the collapse of the communist regime in 1990 – has been experiencing high migration rates. Using a combination of survey and census data, the paper characterises spatial patterns in the distribution of poverty and migration at a high level of geographic disaggregation. The results emphasise the importance of analysing internal and international migration as different phenomena, as the two appear t o be associated in opposite ways to observed poverty and welfare levels. While poverty acts as a push factor for internal migration, it seems to be a constraining factor for the more costly international migration. The results also suggest that rural migration to urban areas contributes to the relocation of poverty in urban areas. This paper analyses recent patterns of migration and poverty in Albania, a country that ‑ following the collapse of the communist regime in 1990 – has been experi encing high migration rates. Using a combination of survey and census data, the paper characterises spatial patterns in the distribution of poverty and migration at a high level of geographic disaggregation. The results emphasise the importance of analysing internal and international migration as different phenomena, as the two appear to be associated in opposite ways to observed poverty and welfare levels. While poverty acts as a push factor for internal migration, it seems to be a constraining factor for the more costly international migration. The results also suggest that rural migration to urban areas contributes to the relocation of poverty in urban areas. Key Words: Poverty, Migration, Albania. JEL: J1, J61, I32.
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    Provision of scientific advice for the purpose of the implementation of the EUPOA sharks. Final Report. European Commission, Studies for Carrying out the Common Fisheries Policy (MARE/2010/11 - LOT 2) 2013
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    The scope of the European Union Plan of Action for Sharks covers directed commercial, by-catch commercial, directed recreatiol, and by-catch recreatiol fishing of any chondrichthyans within European Union waters. It also includes any fisheries covered by current and potential agreements and partnerships between the European Union and third countries, as well as fisheries in the high seas and fisheries covered by RFMOs maging or issuing non-binding recommendations outside European Union waters. S cientific advice for the purpose of the magement of shark species in the high seas is carried out mainly via the Scientific Committees of the relevant Regiol Fisheries Magement Organisations (RFMO), as well as through specific projects by tiol institutes, and other research organisms. However, the level of knowledge concerning many shark populations in the high seas of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans is far from satisfactory. It is therefore necessary to identify gaps in the current know ledge of fisheries, biology and ecology of sharks that should be filled in order to support advice on sustaible magement of elasmobranches' fisheries and undertaking studies to fill those gaps. Therefore, the objective of this project is to obtain scientific advice for the purpose of implementing the EUPOA on sharks as regards the facilitation of monitoring fisheries and shark stock assessment on a species-specific level in the high seas. The study is focused on major elasmobranch species caught by both artisal and industrial large pelagic fisheries on the High Seas of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific area, which are currently monitored and potentially maged by respective Tu RFMOs. Specifically, firstly the study aims to collate and estimate historical fisheries data especially on species composition of catches, catches and effort, size frequencies in order to identify the gaps in the current availability of fishery statistics as well current knowledge biology and ecology of sharks tha t should be filled in order to support the scientific advice provided to RFMOs on sustaible magement of elasmobranch fisheries. And secondly, the project aims to review and prioritise the gaps identified to develop a research program to fill those gaps in support for the formulation of scientific advice for magement of sharks. The data and knowledge gaps identified through Phase I will allow focusing and prioritising the future research. From this summarisation of Phase I it will be clear as to what data is available for providing magement advice for shark species, and where gaps in the data render this task difficult. In a second step, recommendations for data collection improvements as well as research necessities and activities will be described. The data collected in Phase I of the project gives a complete picture of the current data availability of information about catch and effort, observer programs, size frequency information, biological information and fishery indicators that may support the assessment of major shark species in Tu RFMOs. In spite of the importance of shark catches by industrial fleets, they have traditiolly consisted of bycatch of commercial fisheries and sharks are most often discarded or finned. Therefore, most of the times, shark catches are not recorded, especially with the required level of resolution, and catches must be estimated by statistical procedures based on observer data, fishing effort and different covariates. Moreover, the informatio n recorded is not usually RFMO) databases. The information on shark bycatch is scarce and their estimates found in the literature are not homogenous which made the raising and/or estimates of ratios (by-catch/target catch) uncertain due to various assumptions made (e.g. conversion of the estimates in number of individuals into weight without any information on the mean size per species). In summary, the main difficulties and data gaps identified in the project can be described as follows: there is a lack of shark reporting in artisal and coastal fisheries; there is a lack of shark reporting in industrial fisheries and when is reported usually is not broken down by species; there is a lack of any size frequency data; there is a lack of regiol biological/ecological information for sharks; there are difficulties to access to the data both at RFMO level and at a country level; species misidentification which affect the collection of fishery statistics; low observer coverage for most of the fleets/areas; difficulties with the use of logbook data for shark assessment (misidentification, underreporting, change in targeting practice). The work carried out in first phase of the project focuses on the collection of fishery information publicly available, mainly in the website public domain of the RFMOs in the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Ocean as well as in the Mediterranean Sea (ICCAT- GFCM, IOTC, IATTC, and WCPFC) but also on information available in the literature, most of which com es from documents presented at the scientific meetings or workshops of RFMOs. The RFMO data administrators were also contacted in order to obtain any additiol fishery statistics data. Similarly, information from flag states, and from EU- member states, was requested in order to improve the information available on discards levels, size frequencies and biological information. Apart from RFMO official statistics, and in order to get more accurate and altertive catch data, shark catch estimations f or the most recent period were appraised based on fleet specific ratios of shark catch over tu (or target) catches. This was done in a two step process, first a general ratio between shark catches over tu (target) catch was applied to estimate total shark catches for major fisheries and, then, the relative proportion by species in the catch was applied to estimate shark catches by species. Those ratios were obtained from the literature search and/or data from observer programs available in the R FMO or in the literature. This exercise allows identifying the fleets that could be mainly responsible for the catch of the main shark species included in the study based on the best assumption of the shark catch over target species catch ratios derived from the literature but also allows identifying the main impacted shark specis by fisheries in each areas as well as the main origin of underreporting. In the Atlantic and Pacific (east and west), the Longline fleet targeting sharks, swordfish an d/or tropical tus is the most important métier catching sharks; which contributes with 59 %, 86 % and 95 % to the total shark catches respectively. On the contrary, the picture in the Indian Ocean is different where gillnet (GN - sensu lato) are contributing with 61 % of the total shark catch in comparison to 18 % for longliners. In general, the species composition of the sharks in different métiers is similar in all Oceans as well as in the Mediterran Sea. For example, Longline (LL - sensu lato ) impacts mainly blueshark and shortfin mako and in a minor extend hammerhead, thresher, silky and oceanic whitetip sharks; whereas Gillnet (GN - sensu lato) are impacting mainly silky, thresher, Oceanic whitetip, and shortfin mako sharks. The catch of silky and oceanic whitetip shark for the longline fleet in the West Pacific is higher than other longline fleets of other Oceans because they are operating in more equatorial waters. Although, in all the Oceans, the contribution to the total catch of Purse seines is minor (maximum of 5 % of total catch in the West Pacific); the species composition of purse seines catch is clearly domited by silky and oceanic whitetip sharks. In all Oceans the main species impacted is blueshark with around 65-75 %, with the exception of the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, of the total shark catch. The contribution of the rest of the species can vary depending on the relative contribution of different fleets as well as the spatial distribution of the d ifferent fleets. However, in general the blueshark catch is then followed by shortfin mako, hammerhead, silky, thresher, Oceanic withetip shark. In the Indian Ocean, the blueshark contribution to total shark catch is around 35 % followed by silky shark (21 %), thresher (16 %), Oceanic whitetip (11 %), shortfin mako (10 %) and hammerheads (6 %). And in the Mediterrenean, blueshark contribution is around 50 % while other species make up the rest: thresher sharks (25 %), mako sharks (13.3 %), tope shark (6.1 %), rays (3.5 %), and porbeagle (1 %). The comparison between the declared value and the estimated value can be considered as a figure for undereporting. For example, it is worth mentioning that the total average amount of the investigated species estimated is 1.5, 13 and 7 times higher than the average amount declared in the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean, respectively. However, as the estimation carried out in this alysis was based on ratio of shark catch over to tal target catch there is high uncertainty on fil estimations coming from different sources; such as métier classification, from target species quantities declared and from the shark/target catch ratio used to estimate the shark species investigated; which recommend to take these estimations with caution. It was not possible to apply this methodology to the Eastern and Western Pacific due to the lack of access to disaggretate tu/target species catches from the IATTC/WCPFC public databases. And t he data above should be considered in the light of the different species productivity and susceptibility of a given species to a giving métier. This is important to take into account because in some cases a minor catch of one species from all fleets, or one fleet in particular, can have a great impact if the species in question is more vulnerable showing low productivity and high susceptibility to the fleet(s). So, it is important to consider the results above in the framework of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) which can help to identify priorities for observer programs/research efforts. Filly, data gaps identified in relation to shark fishery statistics have been summarized with the aim to develop a research framework that would allow filling those gaps in order to assess and mage the shark population worldwide in a sustaible manner. The design of such programme is benefited and integrates all the information collected through phase I. For example, the data and knowledge gaps identif ied and listed/inventoried through Phase I allows focusing and prioritised the future research. From this summarisation of Phase I it is clear as to what data is available for providing magement advice for shark species, and where gaps in the data render this task difficult. At this stage, recommendations for data collection improvements as well as research necessities and activities are described. As such, the review of existing information; as well as the identification of information gaps, ma in shark species impacted and main métier responsible for major shark catch; presented above provides the basis for development of a research program and priorities for the assessment of the status of sharks in Tu RFMOs. As it is not possible to develop a research program for all the Tu RFMOs, a general framework to develop the research program in support of the scientific advice for shark magement is proposed; which includes: (1) a research framework to identify the main species and fleets that needs to be prioritized for the collection of fishery data and information in order to assure the assessment of principal shark species regiolly in the Tu RFMOs; (2) a general recommendations for all Tu RFMOs to improve the data collection to fill the gaps identified above; and (3) options for magement and mitigation measures for sharks. The research framework is proposed to be organized in three steps: (i) estimation of shark catches by species using the method proposed here which allows ident ifying the most impacted shark species and the métier most affecting those species; (ii) a prelimiry Ecological Risk Assessment (or other prelimiry assessment based on fishery indicators) by fleets which allows to identify the most vulnerable species to focus the efforts in conjunction with point (i); and (iii) specific recommendations of how to apply possible magement measures, to improve data collection and assessment of those fleets/species identified as priorities based on points (ii) and (i ii). The implementation of the three steps is highly related. The project also recommends actions to fill the identified gaps structured in sections as data collection, data reporting, data resolution, data access, and assessment. As the data collected through phase I give a complete picture of what are the main fleets targeting the more important shark species caught in the Tu RFMOs, both EU and other countries catching shark, as well as the extent of their volume; this exercise also helps to i dentify the different species for which more focus is needed and those that are supposed to be caught in a lesser extent. For example, this helps to focus the target or more important fleets to monitor and design specific representative observer schemes for those fleets as necessary. Having in mine the data gaps for major fisheries impacting pelagic sharks stocks in the different t-RFMOs Conventions areas as well as the most important metier catching sharks and most impacted shark species; the p roject proposes some possible solutions and recommendations for the implementation of observers programmes on those fisheries, aiming to improve shark data collection, mely regarding shark catch and discards: species composition; vessel mortality; size and sex data. Magement measures are essential when a given stock is seriously affected by the fishing activity and are aimed at limiting the impact of this activity. The election of a measure will depend on the stock status, on the behavior of the species, on the species being target or not, etc.; but the project summarizes several options of magement and mitigation measures applicable to shark species.
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    Report of the IOTC CPUE Workshop 2013
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    A Workshop developing assessing CPUE trends and techniques used by IOTC RFMO was held in AZTI Teclia in San Sebastian (Spain), from 21 to 22 October 2013. The following were the key issues and recommendations identified at the meeting: 1. Use of newer standardization techniques (GLMM, GEOSTATISTICAL APPROACHES and CORE AREA APPROACHES) using operatiol data to assess divergence in CPUE?s across fleets. 1.1. While standard approaches worked well in most cases, the CPUE WG recommended that newer ap proaches should be tested. The results of the workshop conducted over the two day period, indicated that the GLMM models tend to capture the trends better. In addition incorporating more vessel specifics and using geostatistical techniques is another approach to pursue over time. Filly, the use of core-area approaches may be informative for by-catch species. Moreover, the majority feeling of the group was that during CPUE standardization the use of operatiol data when they are available is recom mended as it will allow to capture the covariates that are important during the standardization process. 1.2. The strongest recommendation that came out of the workshop was that in areas where CPUE’s diverged the CPC’s were encouraged to meet inter-sessiolly to resolve the differences. In addition, the major CPC’s were encouraged to develop a combined CPUE from multiple fleets so it may capture the true abundance better. Approaches to possibly pursue are the following: i) Assess filtering approa ches on data and whether they have an effect, ii) examine spatial resolution on fleets operating and whether this is the primary reason for differences, and iii) examine fleet efficiencies by area, iv) use operatiol data for the standardization, and v) have a meeting amongst all operatiol level data across all fleets to assess an approach where we may look at catch rates across the broad areas. 1.3. Simulation studies could also be developed to assess which models work best (delta log-Normal, ze ro inflated versus standard GLM+constant, Tweedie). 1.4. Operatiol level data is useful if we want to quantify fishing fleet efficiency using fleet dymic covariates. More applications could be developed using the methods developed by Hoyle and Okamoto (2010), or Hoyle (2009), and prelimirily presented by Dr. Okamoto at the CPUE workshop. 1.5. Assess how core area Standardization works along with out of core or boundary area effects. 1.6. Environmental data would be useful to consider in relation to standardization approaches. However, the way it is usually performed in GLMs, where an environmental covariate is associated to each observation (in regular 1°, 5° or even 10° grids) , may not be the most pertinent as it does not allow to identify the ecological processes which may affect CPUE. Altertively, GLMs could be performed in sub-areas where the variability pattern of the environmental sigture is well identified (using spatial EOFs to delineate those sub-areas). In such sub-areas, GL Ms could be designed with and without environmental covariates to understand the potential effect of the environment. Environmental covariates should be in limited numbers (the lesser the better) and selected in order to test hypothesis on the ecological processes at stake. Develop robust CPUE series for other species and Working Parties. 2.1. The Working Group recommended to also focus the efforts in other species such as Temperate Tu. In addition the WG recommended, developing better CPUE data for Neritic Tu, and also improving the data and standardization on marlins and sharks. 2.2. Develop a reference manual for use in performing a CPUE standardization for any fleet in any working party (e.g. neritic tu WP or temperate tu WP). Criteria for inclusion of the data in a stock assessment should also be developed (possibly using ICCAT techniques as a baseline). With regard to Purse Seine data the following were recommended: 3.1. Approaches being pursued by EU scientist have some promise, and more work should be put in the development of an index of abundance for the PS fleet on Skipjack Tu, Yellowfin Tu and Bigeye Tu. 3.2. The availability of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data is a major requirement for the purse seine fishing fleet as it ebles to spatialize the nomil effort (i.e. fishing or searching time), which is key to appreciate the temporal changes in the spatial extent of the prospected areas. VMS data may also be used to alyze PS trajectories with the aim to discrimit e sets on FADs equipped with buoys from free school sets, log sets and foreign FADs sets (see after) 3.3. Purse seiners currently fish during the same trip on a combition of free-swimming and drifting FAD-associated schools. In addition, fishing on FADs results from both the detection of vessel-owned FADs through GPS geolocation systems as well as from the finding of 'foreign' FADs through bird detection for instance. Future alyses should focus on the separation of fishing time between searching and running towards FADs. Classification methods based on indicators describing spatial behaviour of vessels could eble to define typical fishing strategies and categorize trip components into such categories. 3.4. Data available on FAD activities collection have improved recently. Future alyses should focus on the definition of a fishing effort for purse seiners using FADs by (i) looking at the influence of the number of FADs owned by a vessel on individual CPUEs, (ii) by investigating the CPU Es in areas characterized by strong contrasts in FAD density. The influence of supply vessels on catch rates (e.g. the number of sets per day) and on the overall fishing capacity of the PS fleet should also be investigated at the vessel level through the information available from supply logbooks. 3.5. Alyses of temporal changes in individual and overall fleet catchability from CPUEs should be conducted to estimate fishing power creep and investigate how such changes are related with some major technological changes known for the PS fleet (e.g. bird radar). Including vessel effects into GLMs can reveal useful insights on vessel efficiency for such alyses. Attention should be paid also for change over time of fishery indicators which are part of the CPUE (e.g., number of set by day, % of successful set, catch size of the set). 4. The CPUE Workshop participants recommended that a thorough alysis of the history of the fishery would be useful for references for each species. In addition, t he Group agreed that a central body (the Secretariat) should undertake additiol activities in key areas (Neritic tus where they can develop/collate the existing data on catch and effort and alyse this for some key species (eg. Longtail and Kawakawa)). 5. The CPUE Standardization Working Group agreed that a reference document that IOTC could use in what criteria should be used in utilizing a dataset for CPUE Standardization for all WP would incorporate the specifics of the temporal and spatial co verage of the data, and useful covariates that could quantify the fishing activity and the environment in which the fish lived.

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