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土地相关术语表 / Glossary of land related terms

聚焦权属治理自愿准则 / With a focus on the Voluntary Guidelines on the Governance of Tenure










​粮农组织。2021。《土地相关术语表 — 聚焦权属治理自愿准则》。罗马。

FAO. 2021. Glossary of land related terms – With a focus on the Voluntary Guidelines on the Governance of Tenure. Rome. 





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  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (stand-alone)
    The ABC of land tenure - Key terms and their meaning/DANH MỤC CÁC THUẬT NGỮ VỀ QUYỀN - SỬ DỤNG ĐẤT
    With a focus on the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fishe/Với trọng tâm vào bộ Hướng dẫn Tự nguyện về Quản trị có trách nhiệm đối với Quyền sở hữu Đất đai, Ngư trường và Rừng trong bối cảnh An ninh Lương thực Quốc gia
    2020
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    This glossary has been prepared to assist with an understanding of land tenure terms in the context of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT). This document draws on other glossaries (see references) and includes key words that are used in the VGGT, together with other commonly used words in land administration, land management and land legislation. As with any glossary, this document reflects a certain perspective on land tenure concepts, and it is possible that others will have different perspectives. Cuốn sổ tay thuật ngữ này được xây dựng nhằm giải thích các thuật ngữ chính trong lĩnh vực sử dụng đất có liên quan tới Bộ tài liệu hướng dẫn áp dụng tự nguyện về quản trị sử dụng đất, thủy sản và lâm nghiệp trong bối cảnh an ninh lương thực quốc gia (VGGT). Sổ tay cũng dẫn chiếu tới các bảng thuật ngữ khác (xem danh mục tài liệu tham khảo), bao gồm các từ khóa được dùng trong VGGT cũng như các từ ngữ thông dụng trong lĩnh vực quản lý hành chính và phi hành chính cũng như hệ thống quy phạm pháp luật về đất đai. Giống như các bảng thuật ngữ khác, tài liệu này phản ánh quan điểm nhất định đối với các khái niệm trong lĩnh vực sử dụng đất và có khả năng không trùng với các quan điểm khác.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (stand-alone)
    The ABC of land tenure – Key terms and their meaning/សិទ្ធិកាន់់កាប់់ដីធ្លី ៖ ពាក្យយគន្លឹះ និងនិយមន័័យ
    With a focus on the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security/ដោយផ្តោតសំំខាន់់លើគោល ការណ៍៍ណែនាំំដោយស្ម័័គ្រចិត្តតស្តី ពីអភិបាលកិច្ចច
    2020
    Also available in:

    ឯកសារ ពាក្យគន្លឹះនេះត្រូវបានរៀបចំឡើងដើម្បីសម្រួលដល់ការស្វែងយល់អំពីពាក្យគន្លឹះពាក់ព័ន្ធនឹងសិទ្ធិកាន់កាប់ដីធ្លី ក្នុងបរិបទនៃគោលការណ៍ណែនាំដោយស្ម័គ្រចិត្តស្តីពីអភិបាលកិច្ចប្រកបដោយការទទួលខុសត្រូវលើការកាន់កាប់ដីធ្លី ជលផល និងព្រៃឈើក្នុងបរិបទនៃសន្តិសុខស្បៀងជាតិ (VGGT)។ ឯកសារនេះផ្អែកលើសន្ទានុក្រមផ្សេងទៀត (សូមមើលឯកសារយោង) និងរួមបញ្ចូលពាក្យគន្លឹះដែលប្រើប្រាស់ក្នុងគោលការណ៍ណែនាំដោយស្ម័គ្រចិត្ត ស្តីពីអភិបាលកិច្ចប្រកបដោយការទទួលខុសត្រូវលើការកាន់កាប់ដីធ្លី ជលផល និងព្រៃឈើក្នុងបរិបទនៃសន្តិសុខស្បៀងជាតិ (VGGT) បូករួមនឹងពាក្យផ្សេងទៀតដែលប្រើប្រាស់ជាទូទៅក្នុងរដ្ឋបាលដីធ្លី ការគ្រប់គ្រងដីធ្លី និងច្បាប់ដីធ្លី។ មិនថាផ្អែកតាមសន្ទានុក្រមណាមួយនោះទេ ឯកសារនេះឆ្លុះបញ្ចាំងអំពីការយល់ឃើញស្តីពីទស្សននៃសិទ្ធិកាន់កាប់ដីធ្លី ហើយឯកសារផ្សេងទៀតអាចមានការយល់ឃើញផ្សេងពីនេះ។ This document with key terms has been prepared to assist with an understanding of land tenure terms in the context of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT). This document draws on other glossaries (see references) and includes key words that are used in the VGGT, together with other commonly used words in land administration, land management and land legislation. As with any glossary, this document reflects a certain perspective on land tenure concepts, and it is possible that others will have different perspectives.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (stand-alone)
    The ABC of land tenure – Key terms and their meaning/ အမျိုးသား စားနပ်ရိက္ခာ ဖူလုံရေးအတွက် မြေယာ၊ သားငါး နှင့် သစ်တောများ နှင့် သက်ဆိုင်သော လုပ်ပိုင်ခွင့်အား တာဝန်ခံသည့် စီမံခန့်ခွဲမှုအတွက် စေတနာ ဖြင့် တန်ဖိုးထား၍ လိုက်နာကျင့်သုံးသင့်သော လမ်းညွှန်ချက်များ
    With a focus on the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security / ကို အလေးထား၍ ထည့်သွင်းပြုစုထားသည်
    2020
    Also available in:

    This glossary has been prepared to assist with an understanding of land tenure terms in the context of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT). This document draws on other glossaries and includes keywords that are used in the VGGT, together with other commonly used words in land administration, land management, and land legislation. As with any glossary, this document reflects a certain perspective on land tenure concepts, and it is possible that others will have different perspectives. အမ ိ ျိုးသာျိုး စာျိုးနပ်ရိက္ခာ ဖူလ ုံရရျိုးအတွက္် ရ မယာ၊ သာျိုးင ျိုး နှင ် သစ်ရတာမ ာျိုးနှင ် သက္်ဆိုံင်ရသာ လုံပ်ပိုံင်ခွင ်အာျိုး တာဝန်ခ သည ် စီမ ခန ်ခွွဲမှုအတွက္် ရစတနာ ဖင ် တန်ဖိုံျိုးထာျိုး၍ လိုံက္်နာက္ င ်သ ုံျိုးသင ်ရသာ လမ်ျိုးညွှန်ခ က္်မ ာျိုး (VGGT) နှင ် ဆက္်စပ်ရသာ ရ မယာလုံပ်ပိုံင်ခွင ်ဆိုံင်ရာ စက္ာျိုးလ ုံျိုးမ ာျိုးက္ိုံ နာျိုးလည်ရစရရျိုး အရထာက္်အပ ဖစ်ရစရန် အရ ခခ အသ ုံျိုးအနှုန်ျိုးနှင ် အဓိပပ ယ် ဖွင် ဆိုံခ က္်မ ာျိုး ပ ၀င်ရသာ ဤစာအုံပ်က္ိုံ ပ စုံခွဲ ပ သည်။ ဤစာအုံပ်တွင် အ ခာျိုး ခက္်ဆစ်မ ာျိုး (ရည်ညွှန်ျိုးခ က္်မ ာျိုးက္ိုံ ကက္ည် ရန်) နှင ် VGGTတွင် အသ ုံျိုး ပ ထာျိုးရသာ စက္ာျိုးလ ုံျိုးမ ာျိုးသာမက္ ရ မယာ အုံပ်ခ ပ်ရရျိုး၊ ရ မယာ စီမ ခန ်ခွွဲရရျိုးနှင ် ရ မယာ ဥပရေစီရင် ပဌာန်ျိုး ခင်ျိုး ရရျိုးမ ာျိုး တွင် အသ ုံျိုး ပ ရလ ရှိရသာ အ ခာျိုးစက္ာျိုးလ ုံျိုးမ ာျိုးက္ိုံလည်ျိုး ထည ်သွင်ျိုးထာျိုးပ သည်။ အ ခာျိုးခက္်ဆစ် ဖွင ်ဆိုံခ က္် မ ာျိုး၏ သရဘာသဘာဝအတိုံင်ျိုး ဤခက္်ဆစ်ဖွင ်ဆိုံခ က္်သည်လည်ျိုး ရ မ-ယာလုံပ်ပိုံင်ခွင ် ဆိုံင်ရာ သရဘာတရာျိုး မ ာျိုးက္ိုံ ရှုရထာင ်တစ်ခုံမှ ကက္ည ် မင်ထာျိုးသည် ဖစ်သ ဖင ် က္ွွဲ ပာျိုး ခာျိုးနာျိုးရသာ အ မင်မ ာျိုး ရှိရက္ာင်ျိုး ရှိနိုံင်ပ သည်။
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (stand-alone)
    The ABC of land tenure - Key terms and their meaning/DANH MỤC CÁC THUẬT NGỮ VỀ QUYỀN - SỬ DỤNG ĐẤT
    With a focus on the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fishe/Với trọng tâm vào bộ Hướng dẫn Tự nguyện về Quản trị có trách nhiệm đối với Quyền sở hữu Đất đai, Ngư trường và Rừng trong bối cảnh An ninh Lương thực Quốc gia
    2020
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    This glossary has been prepared to assist with an understanding of land tenure terms in the context of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT). This document draws on other glossaries (see references) and includes key words that are used in the VGGT, together with other commonly used words in land administration, land management and land legislation. As with any glossary, this document reflects a certain perspective on land tenure concepts, and it is possible that others will have different perspectives. Cuốn sổ tay thuật ngữ này được xây dựng nhằm giải thích các thuật ngữ chính trong lĩnh vực sử dụng đất có liên quan tới Bộ tài liệu hướng dẫn áp dụng tự nguyện về quản trị sử dụng đất, thủy sản và lâm nghiệp trong bối cảnh an ninh lương thực quốc gia (VGGT). Sổ tay cũng dẫn chiếu tới các bảng thuật ngữ khác (xem danh mục tài liệu tham khảo), bao gồm các từ khóa được dùng trong VGGT cũng như các từ ngữ thông dụng trong lĩnh vực quản lý hành chính và phi hành chính cũng như hệ thống quy phạm pháp luật về đất đai. Giống như các bảng thuật ngữ khác, tài liệu này phản ánh quan điểm nhất định đối với các khái niệm trong lĩnh vực sử dụng đất và có khả năng không trùng với các quan điểm khác.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (stand-alone)
    The ABC of land tenure – Key terms and their meaning/សិទ្ធិកាន់់កាប់់ដីធ្លី ៖ ពាក្យយគន្លឹះ និងនិយមន័័យ
    With a focus on the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security/ដោយផ្តោតសំំខាន់់លើគោល ការណ៍៍ណែនាំំដោយស្ម័័គ្រចិត្តតស្តី ពីអភិបាលកិច្ចច
    2020
    Also available in:

    ឯកសារ ពាក្យគន្លឹះនេះត្រូវបានរៀបចំឡើងដើម្បីសម្រួលដល់ការស្វែងយល់អំពីពាក្យគន្លឹះពាក់ព័ន្ធនឹងសិទ្ធិកាន់កាប់ដីធ្លី ក្នុងបរិបទនៃគោលការណ៍ណែនាំដោយស្ម័គ្រចិត្តស្តីពីអភិបាលកិច្ចប្រកបដោយការទទួលខុសត្រូវលើការកាន់កាប់ដីធ្លី ជលផល និងព្រៃឈើក្នុងបរិបទនៃសន្តិសុខស្បៀងជាតិ (VGGT)។ ឯកសារនេះផ្អែកលើសន្ទានុក្រមផ្សេងទៀត (សូមមើលឯកសារយោង) និងរួមបញ្ចូលពាក្យគន្លឹះដែលប្រើប្រាស់ក្នុងគោលការណ៍ណែនាំដោយស្ម័គ្រចិត្ត ស្តីពីអភិបាលកិច្ចប្រកបដោយការទទួលខុសត្រូវលើការកាន់កាប់ដីធ្លី ជលផល និងព្រៃឈើក្នុងបរិបទនៃសន្តិសុខស្បៀងជាតិ (VGGT) បូករួមនឹងពាក្យផ្សេងទៀតដែលប្រើប្រាស់ជាទូទៅក្នុងរដ្ឋបាលដីធ្លី ការគ្រប់គ្រងដីធ្លី និងច្បាប់ដីធ្លី។ មិនថាផ្អែកតាមសន្ទានុក្រមណាមួយនោះទេ ឯកសារនេះឆ្លុះបញ្ចាំងអំពីការយល់ឃើញស្តីពីទស្សននៃសិទ្ធិកាន់កាប់ដីធ្លី ហើយឯកសារផ្សេងទៀតអាចមានការយល់ឃើញផ្សេងពីនេះ។ This document with key terms has been prepared to assist with an understanding of land tenure terms in the context of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT). This document draws on other glossaries (see references) and includes key words that are used in the VGGT, together with other commonly used words in land administration, land management and land legislation. As with any glossary, this document reflects a certain perspective on land tenure concepts, and it is possible that others will have different perspectives.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (stand-alone)
    The ABC of land tenure – Key terms and their meaning/ အမျိုးသား စားနပ်ရိက္ခာ ဖူလုံရေးအတွက် မြေယာ၊ သားငါး နှင့် သစ်တောများ နှင့် သက်ဆိုင်သော လုပ်ပိုင်ခွင့်အား တာဝန်ခံသည့် စီမံခန့်ခွဲမှုအတွက် စေတနာ ဖြင့် တန်ဖိုးထား၍ လိုက်နာကျင့်သုံးသင့်သော လမ်းညွှန်ချက်များ
    With a focus on the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security / ကို အလေးထား၍ ထည့်သွင်းပြုစုထားသည်
    2020
    Also available in:

    This glossary has been prepared to assist with an understanding of land tenure terms in the context of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT). This document draws on other glossaries and includes keywords that are used in the VGGT, together with other commonly used words in land administration, land management, and land legislation. As with any glossary, this document reflects a certain perspective on land tenure concepts, and it is possible that others will have different perspectives. အမ ိ ျိုးသာျိုး စာျိုးနပ်ရိက္ခာ ဖူလ ုံရရျိုးအတွက္် ရ မယာ၊ သာျိုးင ျိုး နှင ် သစ်ရတာမ ာျိုးနှင ် သက္်ဆိုံင်ရသာ လုံပ်ပိုံင်ခွင ်အာျိုး တာဝန်ခ သည ် စီမ ခန ်ခွွဲမှုအတွက္် ရစတနာ ဖင ် တန်ဖိုံျိုးထာျိုး၍ လိုံက္်နာက္ င ်သ ုံျိုးသင ်ရသာ လမ်ျိုးညွှန်ခ က္်မ ာျိုး (VGGT) နှင ် ဆက္်စပ်ရသာ ရ မယာလုံပ်ပိုံင်ခွင ်ဆိုံင်ရာ စက္ာျိုးလ ုံျိုးမ ာျိုးက္ိုံ နာျိုးလည်ရစရရျိုး အရထာက္်အပ ဖစ်ရစရန် အရ ခခ အသ ုံျိုးအနှုန်ျိုးနှင ် အဓိပပ ယ် ဖွင် ဆိုံခ က္်မ ာျိုး ပ ၀င်ရသာ ဤစာအုံပ်က္ိုံ ပ စုံခွဲ ပ သည်။ ဤစာအုံပ်တွင် အ ခာျိုး ခက္်ဆစ်မ ာျိုး (ရည်ညွှန်ျိုးခ က္်မ ာျိုးက္ိုံ ကက္ည် ရန်) နှင ် VGGTတွင် အသ ုံျိုး ပ ထာျိုးရသာ စက္ာျိုးလ ုံျိုးမ ာျိုးသာမက္ ရ မယာ အုံပ်ခ ပ်ရရျိုး၊ ရ မယာ စီမ ခန ်ခွွဲရရျိုးနှင ် ရ မယာ ဥပရေစီရင် ပဌာန်ျိုး ခင်ျိုး ရရျိုးမ ာျိုး တွင် အသ ုံျိုး ပ ရလ ရှိရသာ အ ခာျိုးစက္ာျိုးလ ုံျိုးမ ာျိုးက္ိုံလည်ျိုး ထည ်သွင်ျိုးထာျိုးပ သည်။ အ ခာျိုးခက္်ဆစ် ဖွင ်ဆိုံခ က္် မ ာျိုး၏ သရဘာသဘာဝအတိုံင်ျိုး ဤခက္်ဆစ်ဖွင ်ဆိုံခ က္်သည်လည်ျိုး ရ မ-ယာလုံပ်ပိုံင်ခွင ် ဆိုံင်ရာ သရဘာတရာျိုး မ ာျိုးက္ိုံ ရှုရထာင ်တစ်ခုံမှ ကက္ည ် မင်ထာျိုးသည် ဖစ်သ ဖင ် က္ွွဲ ပာျိုး ခာျိုးနာျိုးရသာ အ မင်မ ာျိုး ရှိရက္ာင်ျိုး ရှိနိုံင်ပ သည်။
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    Book (stand-alone)
    The ABC of land tenure - Key terms and their meaning/DANH MỤC CÁC THUẬT NGỮ VỀ QUYỀN - SỬ DỤNG ĐẤT
    With a focus on the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fishe/Với trọng tâm vào bộ Hướng dẫn Tự nguyện về Quản trị có trách nhiệm đối với Quyền sở hữu Đất đai, Ngư trường và Rừng trong bối cảnh An ninh Lương thực Quốc gia
    2020
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    This glossary has been prepared to assist with an understanding of land tenure terms in the context of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT). This document draws on other glossaries (see references) and includes key words that are used in the VGGT, together with other commonly used words in land administration, land management and land legislation. As with any glossary, this document reflects a certain perspective on land tenure concepts, and it is possible that others will have different perspectives. Cuốn sổ tay thuật ngữ này được xây dựng nhằm giải thích các thuật ngữ chính trong lĩnh vực sử dụng đất có liên quan tới Bộ tài liệu hướng dẫn áp dụng tự nguyện về quản trị sử dụng đất, thủy sản và lâm nghiệp trong bối cảnh an ninh lương thực quốc gia (VGGT). Sổ tay cũng dẫn chiếu tới các bảng thuật ngữ khác (xem danh mục tài liệu tham khảo), bao gồm các từ khóa được dùng trong VGGT cũng như các từ ngữ thông dụng trong lĩnh vực quản lý hành chính và phi hành chính cũng như hệ thống quy phạm pháp luật về đất đai. Giống như các bảng thuật ngữ khác, tài liệu này phản ánh quan điểm nhất định đối với các khái niệm trong lĩnh vực sử dụng đất và có khả năng không trùng với các quan điểm khác.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    The ABC of land tenure – Key terms and their meaning/សិទ្ធិកាន់់កាប់់ដីធ្លី ៖ ពាក្យយគន្លឹះ និងនិយមន័័យ
    With a focus on the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security/ដោយផ្តោតសំំខាន់់លើគោល ការណ៍៍ណែនាំំដោយស្ម័័គ្រចិត្តតស្តី ពីអភិបាលកិច្ចច
    2020
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    ឯកសារ ពាក្យគន្លឹះនេះត្រូវបានរៀបចំឡើងដើម្បីសម្រួលដល់ការស្វែងយល់អំពីពាក្យគន្លឹះពាក់ព័ន្ធនឹងសិទ្ធិកាន់កាប់ដីធ្លី ក្នុងបរិបទនៃគោលការណ៍ណែនាំដោយស្ម័គ្រចិត្តស្តីពីអភិបាលកិច្ចប្រកបដោយការទទួលខុសត្រូវលើការកាន់កាប់ដីធ្លី ជលផល និងព្រៃឈើក្នុងបរិបទនៃសន្តិសុខស្បៀងជាតិ (VGGT)។ ឯកសារនេះផ្អែកលើសន្ទានុក្រមផ្សេងទៀត (សូមមើលឯកសារយោង) និងរួមបញ្ចូលពាក្យគន្លឹះដែលប្រើប្រាស់ក្នុងគោលការណ៍ណែនាំដោយស្ម័គ្រចិត្ត ស្តីពីអភិបាលកិច្ចប្រកបដោយការទទួលខុសត្រូវលើការកាន់កាប់ដីធ្លី ជលផល និងព្រៃឈើក្នុងបរិបទនៃសន្តិសុខស្បៀងជាតិ (VGGT) បូករួមនឹងពាក្យផ្សេងទៀតដែលប្រើប្រាស់ជាទូទៅក្នុងរដ្ឋបាលដីធ្លី ការគ្រប់គ្រងដីធ្លី និងច្បាប់ដីធ្លី។ មិនថាផ្អែកតាមសន្ទានុក្រមណាមួយនោះទេ ឯកសារនេះឆ្លុះបញ្ចាំងអំពីការយល់ឃើញស្តីពីទស្សននៃសិទ្ធិកាន់កាប់ដីធ្លី ហើយឯកសារផ្សេងទៀតអាចមានការយល់ឃើញផ្សេងពីនេះ។ This document with key terms has been prepared to assist with an understanding of land tenure terms in the context of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT). This document draws on other glossaries (see references) and includes key words that are used in the VGGT, together with other commonly used words in land administration, land management and land legislation. As with any glossary, this document reflects a certain perspective on land tenure concepts, and it is possible that others will have different perspectives.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    The ABC of land tenure – Key terms and their meaning/ အမျိုးသား စားနပ်ရိက္ခာ ဖူလုံရေးအတွက် မြေယာ၊ သားငါး နှင့် သစ်တောများ နှင့် သက်ဆိုင်သော လုပ်ပိုင်ခွင့်အား တာဝန်ခံသည့် စီမံခန့်ခွဲမှုအတွက် စေတနာ ဖြင့် တန်ဖိုးထား၍ လိုက်နာကျင့်သုံးသင့်သော လမ်းညွှန်ချက်များ
    With a focus on the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security / ကို အလေးထား၍ ထည့်သွင်းပြုစုထားသည်
    2020
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    This glossary has been prepared to assist with an understanding of land tenure terms in the context of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT). This document draws on other glossaries and includes keywords that are used in the VGGT, together with other commonly used words in land administration, land management, and land legislation. As with any glossary, this document reflects a certain perspective on land tenure concepts, and it is possible that others will have different perspectives. အမ ိ ျိုးသာျိုး စာျိုးနပ်ရိက္ခာ ဖူလ ုံရရျိုးအတွက္် ရ မယာ၊ သာျိုးင ျိုး နှင ် သစ်ရတာမ ာျိုးနှင ် သက္်ဆိုံင်ရသာ လုံပ်ပိုံင်ခွင ်အာျိုး တာဝန်ခ သည ် စီမ ခန ်ခွွဲမှုအတွက္် ရစတနာ ဖင ် တန်ဖိုံျိုးထာျိုး၍ လိုံက္်နာက္ င ်သ ုံျိုးသင ်ရသာ လမ်ျိုးညွှန်ခ က္်မ ာျိုး (VGGT) နှင ် ဆက္်စပ်ရသာ ရ မယာလုံပ်ပိုံင်ခွင ်ဆိုံင်ရာ စက္ာျိုးလ ုံျိုးမ ာျိုးက္ိုံ နာျိုးလည်ရစရရျိုး အရထာက္်အပ ဖစ်ရစရန် အရ ခခ အသ ုံျိုးအနှုန်ျိုးနှင ် အဓိပပ ယ် ဖွင် ဆိုံခ က္်မ ာျိုး ပ ၀င်ရသာ ဤစာအုံပ်က္ိုံ ပ စုံခွဲ ပ သည်။ ဤစာအုံပ်တွင် အ ခာျိုး ခက္်ဆစ်မ ာျိုး (ရည်ညွှန်ျိုးခ က္်မ ာျိုးက္ိုံ ကက္ည် ရန်) နှင ် VGGTတွင် အသ ုံျိုး ပ ထာျိုးရသာ စက္ာျိုးလ ုံျိုးမ ာျိုးသာမက္ ရ မယာ အုံပ်ခ ပ်ရရျိုး၊ ရ မယာ စီမ ခန ်ခွွဲရရျိုးနှင ် ရ မယာ ဥပရေစီရင် ပဌာန်ျိုး ခင်ျိုး ရရျိုးမ ာျိုး တွင် အသ ုံျိုး ပ ရလ ရှိရသာ အ ခာျိုးစက္ာျိုးလ ုံျိုးမ ာျိုးက္ိုံလည်ျိုး ထည ်သွင်ျိုးထာျိုးပ သည်။ အ ခာျိုးခက္်ဆစ် ဖွင ်ဆိုံခ က္် မ ာျိုး၏ သရဘာသဘာဝအတိုံင်ျိုး ဤခက္်ဆစ်ဖွင ်ဆိုံခ က္်သည်လည်ျိုး ရ မ-ယာလုံပ်ပိုံင်ခွင ် ဆိုံင်ရာ သရဘာတရာျိုး မ ာျိုးက္ိုံ ရှုရထာင ်တစ်ခုံမှ ကက္ည ် မင်ထာျိုးသည် ဖစ်သ ဖင ် က္ွွဲ ပာျိုး ခာျိုးနာျိုးရသာ အ မင်မ ာျိုး ရှိရက္ာင်ျိုး ရှိနိုံင်ပ သည်။

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