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The transport of live fish. A review












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    Book (stand-alone)
    Field guide to the control of warmwater fish diseases in Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia 2019
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    Due to the recent rapid development of freshwater aquaculture in the Caucasus Region, many new and previously known fish diseases have appeared. One of the most prominent features of the region’s aquaculture is that it is mostly based on the rearing of cyprinids, mainly the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), as well as a few other predatory fish species. As a result, this book focuses on the diseases that affect these and other important warmwater fish species. Although this field guide covers the diseases of warmwater fish of Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia, it also draws upon the extensive knowledge base available for the countries of Central Europe and the former Soviet Union, as well as recent research findings from the Islamic Republic of Iran and from Turkey. The major warmwater fish species cultured in the region and their health status are discussed, and two major categories of disease are recognized: biotic and abiotic diseases. Although there are numerous biotic diseases, abiotic factors (e.g. lack of oxygen, temperature, feeding mistakes) remain the main cause of losses in aquaculture. The best practices for the field and laboratory examination of disease outbreaks are reviewed, and the importance of accurate and detailed data recording emphasized. Prevention as a key factor in avoiding the spread of disease is highlighted, and actions to prevent the spread of diseases between farms, regions, countries and continents are discussed. Possible methods for the treatment of each disease are reviewed; unfortunately, the chemicals available for use in aquaculture are now rather limited, as many of them are hazardous to both the environment and human health. Of the viral diseases discussed, spring viraemia of carp (SVC) and koi herpesvirus (KHV) pose the greatest threats to the world’s carp populations. Of the bacterial diseases, ulcer disease is still the main problem in carp culture, while among the parasites, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, the cause of white spot disease, is among the most important. Exotic parasites such as various Thelohanellus species, as well as tapeworms belonging to the genera Bothriocephalus and Khawia, are responsible for a considerable amount of damage. Some diseases of unknown aetiology are also discussed.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Environmental capacity; An Approach to Marine Pollution Prevention 1986
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    The aim of this Report is to provide guidelines for the assessment of the impact of potentially harmful substances released into the marine environment. The Environmental (also known as receiving, absorptive or assimilative) Capacity is defined as a property of the environment, a measurement of its ability to accommodate a particular activity or rate of an activity, such as the discharge of contaminants, without unacceptable impact. The Environmental Capacity can be apportioned for various use s. The Report proposes the use of a strategy to combat marine pollution based on this concept of Environmental Capacity. It provides the scientific rationale for the assessment of this entity, the methodology of calculation based on modelling, guidelines for its systematic application, monitoring and reassessment, and provides a number of case studies in the form of examples involving various contaminants and different geographical areas. The Report opens with a short introduction outlining the basic concepts and premisses which lie behind the acceptance of disposal of wastes in the sea. When a development is first proposed, its impact on the whole environment, together with the costs and benefits to society as a whole, must be taken into account before the plans are actually implemented. The procedure is often now known as environmental impact assessment (EIA). This wide-ranging procedure embraces far more than the scientific assessment of the impact of pollutants on the environme nt and as such lies outside the terms of reference of GESAMP. Accordingly, this Report concentrates on describing the parameters and processes which have to be taken into account in the assessment of the impact of pollutants on marine organisms, ecosystems, amenities and human health, as a consequence of any discharges to the marine environment. The methodology of assessment of Environmental Capacity as proposed in the Report, involves critical pathway analysis for both conservative and non- conservative contaminants, establishment of environmental and water quality objectives, criteria and standards. Faced with the inevitability of several sources of uncertainty in real-life conditions, a probabilistic approach is proposed as an alternative to deterministic analysis. The approach proposed is Decision Analysis, and this is exemplified by a flow diagram. The Report does not describe in detail how to gather the basic data or to carry out practical tasks such as conducting toxicity t ests or measuring water movements. To have done so would simply have duplicated material which is already available in the open literature and therefore accessible to those persons who will be brought in to advise or otherwise provide expert opinion on any project. The Report does, however, provide guidelines on how to utilize information to assess the overall impact of the activity on the marine environment. Guidance is provided on those procedures which are most likely to ensure that the activ ity can be contained within the capacity of the marine environment to receive wastes without causing unacceptable effects. The methodology of assessment of the Environmental Capacity is based on scientific research and resulting data. It is, by definition, site- and contaminant-specific. It is accomplished in stages, the preliminary assessment can be accomplished using approximations such as single-box and simple mass-balance models, and by averaging over larger time scales on the assumption o f steady-state conditions. As more data become available and transport and modification processes become better understood, more accurate values of Environmental Capacity will be obtained. These can then be used in environmentally compatible development planning and project implementation.
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    Document
    Sucrose, photosynthetic photon flux density, & CO2 concentration affect growth & development of micropropagated mountain ash
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Mountain ash (Sorbus commixta Hedl.), is an important medicinal woody plant in Korea used for the treatment of cough, asthma, and other bronchial disorders. Unfortunately, the species is gradually disappearing due to over exploitation of the natural habitats. Tissue culture is a common and powerful technique for the clonal mass propagation which can be adapted to Mountain ash for ecosystem restoration. In an effort to establish a micropropagation method at the stage II for proliferation of shoots, Mountain ash was micropropagated under the so called a photo-autotrophic or photo-mixotrophic culture conditions. Micro-shoots of Mountain ash at the micropropagation stage II were cultured under two levels each of medium sucrose concentration (0 and 30 g.L-1), photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD, 50 and 200 µmol.m-2.s-1), and CO2 concentration (350 and 1,000 µmol.mol-1). Axillary shoots originated from in vitro-grown plantlets, were stuck into and cultured on 50 ml per container of agar-solidified half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2.0 mg.L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Tissue water content, leaf length, and total chlorophyll content increased in plantlets cultured in the medium without sucrose (a photo-autotrophic condition). High PPFD promoted axillary shoot length, number of nodes, axillary shoot fresh weight, axillary shoot dry weight, leaf length, leaf width, and total chlorophyll content especially in the photo-autotrophic condition. High CO2 concentration increased axillary shoot length, number of axillary shoots, number of nodes, stem diameter, axillary shoot fresh weight, and axillary shoot dry weight. The treatment with a high PPFD, a high CO2 concentration, and without supplementation of sucrose to the medium (a photo-autotrophic condition) was better for growth and development in terms of number of nodes, tissue water content, leaf length, leaf width, and total chlorophyll content than those in the other treatments. Keywords: Research, Biodiversity conservation ID: 3622923

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