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Duck keeping in the tropics










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    Article
    Longitudinal Analysis of Influenza A(H5) Sero-Surveillance in Myanmar Ducks, 2006–2019 2021
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    Between 2006 and 2019, serological surveys in unvaccinated domestic ducks reared outdoors in Myanmar were performed, using a haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, to confirm H5 avian influenza virus circulation and assess temporal and spatial distribution. Positive test results occurred every year that samples were collected. The annual proportion of positive farms ranged from 7.1% to 77.2%. The results revealed silent/sub-clinical influenza A (H5) virus circulation, even in years and States/Regions with no highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks reported. Further analysis of the 2018/19 results revealed considerable differences in seroconversion rates between four targeted States/Regions and between years, and showed seroconversion before and during the sampling period. By the end of the trial, a high proportion of farms were seronegative, leaving birds vulnerable to infection when sold. Positive results likely indicate infection with Gs/GD/96-lineage H5Nx HPAI viruses rather than other H5 subtype low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. The findings suggested persistent, but intermittent, circulation of Gs/GD/96-lineage H5Nx HPAI viruses in domestic ducks, despite the veterinary services’ outbreak detection and control efforts. The role of wild birds in transmission remains unclear but there is potential for spill-over in both directions. The findings of this study assist the national authorities in the design of appropriate, holistic avian influenza control programs.
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    Book (series)
    Raising Ducks 1: How to begin 1991
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    This is a practical manual, giving instructions on all aspects of duck production.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Characterization of domestic duck production systems in Cambodia
    AHBL - Promoting strategies for prevention and control of HPAI
    2009
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    A survey was conducted among 99 farmers in Kampong Cham, Kampot, Odar Meanchey, Rattanakiri and Siem Reap provinces in Cambodia to determine the different duck production systems and to differentiate the phenotypic characteristics of ducks in different provinces. The majority of farmers interviewed were men aged between 40 and 50 years. The illiteracy rate among these farmers is less than the national average of 26.4. Rice is the main agricultural crop in all five provinces, 71.7 percent of the farmers rear cattle/buffaloes and 53.5 percent keep pigs along with their ducks. The average flock size is highest in Siem Reap province (204 birds/flock) and lowest in Kampot (10.4 birds/flock). Across all the survey provinces, about 25.2 percent of the farmers stated that poultry numbers have decreased over the last five years. 70.7 percent of the farmers purchase birds from outside, from nearby markets, neighbours or commercial farms. They prefer to buy ducklings rather than adults, and they do not have any particular selection criteria. About 93 percent of the farmers provide some kind of housing for their birds, usually constructed mainly from simple materials available on-farm. Although the birds depend on scavenging, 95 percent of the farmers provide extra feed. Very few farmers use the available veterinary facilities, and disease is reported as the main cause of mortality. In general, the labour involved in managing and marketing the birds is almost equally divided between men and women. The results of multivariate analysis indicate that ducks in Odar Meanchey province are clearly separated from those in all other populations. The most similar populations are those of Kampong Cham and Siem Reap. A comparison of the distances among ducks and chickens indicates that there is even greater diversity in ducks than chickens in Cambodia.

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