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Strengthening Sustainable Forest Governance and Management Systems in Kirisia/Leroghi Forest, Kenya - GCP/KEN/073/GFF








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    Article
    Implications of livestock grazing on sustainable management of montane forests: a case of south west Mau forest, Kenya
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Overgrazing is an emerging concern in Kenya’s indigenous forests. It affects regeneration, species structure and composition and soil. However, information on permissible grazing threshold and effects of overgrazing on forest ecosystem has not been adequately established in Kenya. This study was undertaken in South West Mau; the largest block forming Kenya’s biggest water tower, Mau Complex. Grazing is the main driver of degradation in the forest. The objectives of the study were to determine; dependence of forest adjacent communities on forest for grazing, effects of grazing on forest structure and composition, permissible forage off-take levels and ecologically sustainable carrying capacity. Data and information was collected through household surveys, Focus Group Discussions, vegetation assessment under varied grazing intensities (heavy, moderate and light), estimation of primary forage productivity, livestock census and computation of carrying capacity. The study found that 96% of the households grazed their livestock in the forest throughout the year. Although the forest generally showed natural regeneration as exhibited by reversed exponential curve, there was no regeneration in heavily grazed areas. Further, significant variation existed in species diversity, stand density and basal area across the grazing intensity levels. Physical count survey estimated a total 17,263 livestock (14,804 ±396 cattle, 2,365 sheep, 44 goats and 50 donkeys) grazed in the forest daily. The available forage was estimated at 14 million Kg DM/ year. This forage can support 6,104 Tropical Livestock Units (TLUs) throughout the year. Currently, the forest supports 10,629 TLUs, hence grazing threshold has been exceeded by 74%. There is need therefore, to maintain sustainable grazing threshold that would ensure forest regeneration and adequate forage availability. The study will inform grazing policies in Kenya for sustained forest management. Keywords: Deforestation and forest degradation; Biodiversity conservation; Climate change; Governance; Sustainable forest management ID: 3487126
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    Article
    Towards the development of a strategy for sustainable commercialization of non-timber forest products in Kenya: A situational analysis
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) play a significant role in the livelihoods of Kenyans. This paper reports the key strengths that could be optimized, opportunities available, weaknesses that need to be mitigated, and threats that require recognition to have a strategy for the sustainable commercialization of NTFPs in Kenya. This study was funded by The Restoration Initiative (TRI) project being implemented by FAO and other partners. It involved consultations with 50 institutions and a review of relevant publications, reports, policies, legislation, and strategies. The key interventions in the sub-sector include research and development, resource assessment and mapping, value chain analyses, capacity building, value addition, piloting plantation production, and policy reviews for a limited number of products such as gums and resins, honey, aloes, and mushrooms. The major stakeholders are collectors, community groups, traders, National government agencies, County Governments, private sector actors, development partners, and civil society organizations. Key barriers to the commercialization of NTFPs include deforestation, traditional production, and harvesting technologies, inadequate bulking facilities, insufficient value addition, weak market linkages, and information systems as well as weak policy and institutional frameworks. It is concluded that sustainable commercialization of these products in the country requires a strategy that involves revision/domestication of laws and policies, public-private partnerships, research, innovation, value addition, technology development and transfer, capacity building, synergies and complementarities. Keywords: Non-timber forest products, situational analysis, strategy, Kenya ID: 3485349
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    Sustainable management of Miombo woodlands
    Food security, nutrition and wood energy
    2018
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    The Miombo woodland is a vast African dryland forest ecosystem covering close to 2.7 million km2 across southern Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe). The woodlands are characterized by the dominance of Brachystegia species, either alone or in association with Julbernardia and Isoberlinia species. It is estimated that the woodlands – through their numerous goods and services which include various non-wood forest products (NWFPs) (e.g. insects, mushrooms, fruits, tubers, medicine, fodder, honey, seeds) and woodfuels, which, for simplicity, will be referred to as non-timber forest products, or NTFPs, throughout the publication – sustain the livelihoods of more than 100 million rural poor and 50 million urban people. The charcoal sector alone employs vast numbers of rural people and offers additional income to many poor rural families. Communities moreover rely directly on the woodlands for food and nutrition. NWFPs add vital micro- and macronutrients to local diets and contribute to diversified food systems, while woodfuel is essential for cooking and sterilizing, thus ensuring proper nutrient absorption and providing clean water for drinking. Forests and trees, if managed sustainably, are an important source of resilience for rural people in the Miombo woodlands, supporting households to absorb and recover from climatic or economic calamities and contributing to resolving the underlying causes of food insecurity, undernutrition and poverty by providing nutritious edible products and woodfuel for cooking in addition to conserving biodiversity and water resources, buffering extreme weather conditions and preventing land degradation and desertification. Generally speaking, it is now accepted that forests managed for both timber and NTFPs retain more biodiversity and resilience than forests managed solely for one aspect, e.g. timber and exotic timber plantations. However, a growing population in high need of agricultural land and unsustainable use and overharvesting of natural resources in parts of the Miombo woodlands, combined with climate change impacts (e.g. drought, fires), leave insufficient time for many trees and associated species to regenerate naturally, posing a serious threat to the products and services of the woodlands, and to the livelihoods depending on them. Compounding the problem and hindering development of the Miombo ecosystem, are: i) lack of an enabling policy environment; ii) unsustainable management; iii) limited willingness and ability to pay for and access to energy-efficiency technologies; iv) inadequate awareness and information, including technical capacity; v) high poverty levels; and vi) limited access to microcredit facilities. With the Committee on World Food Security’s endorsement of the recommendations presented in the High Level Panel of Experts Report on Sustainable Forestry for Food Security and Nutrition in late 2017 – which include promoting multifunctional landscapes, integrated food-forestry systems, and research on associated linkages, among other things – forests and trees are expected to play a greater role in future land-use decisions and related policies. This paper provides an overview of these linkages in the context of the Miombo woodlands, in the hope that future land use, policy decisions and financial investments are shaped to support the contributions of forests and trees to the health and livelihoods of communities in the ecoregion. The following key messages were formulated: • Forests and trees, if managed sustainably, are an important source of resilience for rural people in the Miombo woodlands, supporting households to absorb and recover from climatic or economic calamities and contributing to resolving the underlying causes of food insecurity, undernutrition and poverty by providing nutritious edible products and woodfuel for cooking in addition to conserving biodiversity and water resources, buffering extreme weather conditions and preventing land degradation and desertification. • Current data bases referring to the value of the Miombo must be analysed and used as evidence to improve policy-making. • Miombo woodlands may be dominant (spatially), but they have not been addressed as a single unit but as part of the region’s forests. They form part of the overall forestry strategies and no specific mention in the conventions does not suggest that their importance is underplayed. • The management of Miombo will require some changes in management structures, especially in providing benefits emerging from trade in forest products to local managers. • Local forest managers should play a greater role in allocating resources for feedstock for charcoal production.

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