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Aquaculture development. 3. Genetic resource management











FAO. 2008. Aquaculture development. 5. Genetic resource management. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. No. 5, Suppl. 3. Rome, FAO. 2008. 125p.



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    DNA-based molecular diagnostic techniques: research needs for standardization and validation of the detection of aquatic animal pathogens and diseases.
    Report and proceedings of the Expert Workshop on DNA-based Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: Research Needs for Standardization and Validation of the Detection of Aquatic Animal Pathogens and Diseases. Bangkok, Thailand, 7-9 February 1999.
    2000
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    In efforts to limit trans-boundary movement of pathogens and reduce the economic and socioeconomic impact of disease in aquaculture, there is considerable scope for more effective use of DNA-based methods of pathogen detection. These technologies offer rapid results with potentially high sensitivity and specificity, at relatively low cost. Recognition of these advantages has led to rapid adoption of available DNA-based tests, particularly in shrimp culture for which histological procedures lack specificity and culture-based methods have not been possible. However, few if any of the available tests have been assessed appropriately against other diagnostic methods or standardized and validated for specified applications. In fish and shrimp, type or strain specificity of most tests for pathogens in the Asian region is poorly understood and, in molluscs, there is little information on the significant pathogens and few tests of any kind have been developed. Furthermore, tests presently avai lable are frequently conducted by technicians who may not be sufficiently aware of the need for stringent test protocols or the meaning and limitations of the data generated. Implementation of standardized practices that produce reliable, useful and comparable data will require a significant investment in research, training and infrastructure development. Effective implementation will also be assisted by enhanced communication between aquatic animal health practitioners in the region and scienti sts with expertise in molecular diagnostic technologies. This review recommends development by FAO/NACA of 2 programs of managed cooperative research to assist more effective use of DNA-based detection tests. Program A should focus on improving the knowledge base by identification of new and emerging pathogens, relating pathogens in the region to those described elsewhere, and defining the extent of genetic variation between related pathogens in the region. Program B should draw on information currently available or obtained from Program A to develop suitably specific DNA-based diagnostic methods and to evaluate and validate the methods for disease diagnosis and pathogen screening programs. To increase the availability of scientists and technicians with skills in pathology and molecular diagnostic technologies, the review also recommends development of FAO/NACA-sponsored training programs for staff from key laboratories in the region. Training priorities should be in: i) the use of standard histopathological methods for health screening of fish and molluscs; and ii) the use of standard DNA-based methods for pathogen detection including sample collection, application of test protocols and the analysis and interpretation of test results. Because of the urgency of disease problems and the availability of suitable tests, training in DNA-based methods should focus initially on detection of shrimp pathogens. The review also recommends the development of a laboratory accredita tion program in order to achieve standardization of sampling methods and test procedures. The establishment of reference laboratories will assist accreditation for each of the major pathogens. Laboratory accreditation and training programs should complement the activities of OIE in obtaining internationally agreed test standards for molecular diagnostic technologies.
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    Incorporating genetic diversity and indicators into statistics and monitoring of farmed aquatic species and their wild relatives 2017
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    The FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, realizing that substantial production from aquaculture and capture fisheries is based on groups below the level of the species and that genetic information has a variety of uses in fishery management, requested FAO to undertake a thematic study to explore incorporating genetic diversity and indicators into statistics and monitoring of farmed aquatic species and their wild relatives. Information about aquatic genetic resources can be extremely useful to resource managers, policy-makers, private industry and the general public. Not only is genetic diversity the basic building block for selective breeding programmes in aquaculture and for natural populations to adapt to changing environments and evolve, but information on genetic diversity can also be used, inter alia, to help meet production and consumer demands, to prevent and diagnose disease, to trace fish and fish products in the production chain, to monitor impacts of alien species on native species, to differentiate cryptic species, to manage broodstock, and to design more effective conservation and species recovery programmes. However, the majority of resource managers and those government officials submitting information to FAO do not use or have sufficient access to information on aquatic genetic diversity of farmed species and their wild relatives.
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    Aquaculture development. 2. Health management for responsible movement of live aquatic animals 2007
    These Technical Guidelines on Health management for responsible movement of live aquatic animals have been developed to support sections of FAO’s Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF) addressing responsible fisheries management (Article 7), aquaculture development (Article 9), international trade (Article 11) and fisheries research (Article 12). The objective of these guidelines is to assist countries in reducing the risk of introduction and spread of serious transboundary aquatic ani mal diseases (TAADs). Although they deal primarily with safe transboundary movement at the international level, they are also applicable to domestic movements between different provinces, geographical areas or zones of differing disease status. These Technical Guidelines also include guidance for health management at the farm and farm-cluster level, to the extent that these local production units are involved in the spread of TAADs.

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