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Vías a la prosperidad en la Nicaragua rural: ¿Por qué los hogares caen en la pobreza y salen de ella? Algunas sugerencias de políticas para mantenerlos fuera








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    Distinción entre pobreza temporal y pobreza crónica en Nicaragua: Medición con un conjunto de datos de panel sobre los períodos 2003
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    This paper deals with consumption dynamics and its effects on poverty. An econometric model is proposed in which changes in consumption across time are seen as fluctuations around the level of consumption that each family can sustain in the long term. The advantages of this approach are twofold. First, it allows identification of the main determinants of changes in poverty. Second, it allows distinguishing between chronic and transient poverty, by defining as chronically poor those households wh ose level of consumption sustainable in the long term lies below the poverty line. This definition of chronic poverty represents a change with respect to previous works on the subject, in which chronic poverty is defined with reference to the average level of consumption (or income) observed at the family level along the temporal interval of the panel. The innovation of our proposal lies in the fact that all the information from the panel data set, relative to all households, is exploited in ord er to identify which level of consumption each family is tending toward through time. Furthermore, our definition of chronic poverty allows one to identify four different groups of families that differ by level of observed consumption and by potential to generate income for consumption. The four groups are characterized by different incidences of chronic and transient poverty, and hence require different kinds of anti-poverty policies and public support.
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    Sustainable management of Miombo woodlands
    Food security, nutrition and wood energy
    2018
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    The Miombo woodland is a vast African dryland forest ecosystem covering close to 2.7 million km2 across southern Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe). The woodlands are characterized by the dominance of Brachystegia species, either alone or in association with Julbernardia and Isoberlinia species. It is estimated that the woodlands – through their numerous goods and services which include various non-wood forest products (NWFPs) (e.g. insects, mushrooms, fruits, tubers, medicine, fodder, honey, seeds) and woodfuels, which, for simplicity, will be referred to as non-timber forest products, or NTFPs, throughout the publication – sustain the livelihoods of more than 100 million rural poor and 50 million urban people. The charcoal sector alone employs vast numbers of rural people and offers additional income to many poor rural families. Communities moreover rely directly on the woodlands for food and nutrition. NWFPs add vital micro- and macronutrients to local diets and contribute to diversified food systems, while woodfuel is essential for cooking and sterilizing, thus ensuring proper nutrient absorption and providing clean water for drinking. Forests and trees, if managed sustainably, are an important source of resilience for rural people in the Miombo woodlands, supporting households to absorb and recover from climatic or economic calamities and contributing to resolving the underlying causes of food insecurity, undernutrition and poverty by providing nutritious edible products and woodfuel for cooking in addition to conserving biodiversity and water resources, buffering extreme weather conditions and preventing land degradation and desertification. Generally speaking, it is now accepted that forests managed for both timber and NTFPs retain more biodiversity and resilience than forests managed solely for one aspect, e.g. timber and exotic timber plantations. However, a growing population in high need of agricultural land and unsustainable use and overharvesting of natural resources in parts of the Miombo woodlands, combined with climate change impacts (e.g. drought, fires), leave insufficient time for many trees and associated species to regenerate naturally, posing a serious threat to the products and services of the woodlands, and to the livelihoods depending on them. Compounding the problem and hindering development of the Miombo ecosystem, are: i) lack of an enabling policy environment; ii) unsustainable management; iii) limited willingness and ability to pay for and access to energy-efficiency technologies; iv) inadequate awareness and information, including technical capacity; v) high poverty levels; and vi) limited access to microcredit facilities. With the Committee on World Food Security’s endorsement of the recommendations presented in the High Level Panel of Experts Report on Sustainable Forestry for Food Security and Nutrition in late 2017 – which include promoting multifunctional landscapes, integrated food-forestry systems, and research on associated linkages, among other things – forests and trees are expected to play a greater role in future land-use decisions and related policies. This paper provides an overview of these linkages in the context of the Miombo woodlands, in the hope that future land use, policy decisions and financial investments are shaped to support the contributions of forests and trees to the health and livelihoods of communities in the ecoregion. The following key messages were formulated: • Forests and trees, if managed sustainably, are an important source of resilience for rural people in the Miombo woodlands, supporting households to absorb and recover from climatic or economic calamities and contributing to resolving the underlying causes of food insecurity, undernutrition and poverty by providing nutritious edible products and woodfuel for cooking in addition to conserving biodiversity and water resources, buffering extreme weather conditions and preventing land degradation and desertification. • Current data bases referring to the value of the Miombo must be analysed and used as evidence to improve policy-making. • Miombo woodlands may be dominant (spatially), but they have not been addressed as a single unit but as part of the region’s forests. They form part of the overall forestry strategies and no specific mention in the conventions does not suggest that their importance is underplayed. • The management of Miombo will require some changes in management structures, especially in providing benefits emerging from trade in forest products to local managers. • Local forest managers should play a greater role in allocating resources for feedstock for charcoal production.
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    The Impact of Agricultural Productivity on Welfare Growth of Farm Households in Nigeria: A Panel Data Analysis 2016
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    Empirical studies across many developing countries document that improving agricultural productivity is the main pathway out of poverty. In this paper, we begin by investigating the factors that hinder or accelerate agricultural productivity. Additionally, we seek to understand whether agricultural productivity, measured using land productivity, improves household consumption growth using nationally representative Living Standards Measurement Study - Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) panel datasets from Nigeria, merged with detailed novel climate and bio-physical information. The results show that agricultural productivity is positively associated with labor and farm inputs. Consistent with the inverse land size-productivity relationship so often observed in the literature, land productivity decreases with increasing farm size. We also find that climate risk and bio-physical variables play a significant role in explaining agricultural productivity. Moreover, agricultural pro ductivity has a significant and positive impact on household consumption growth. The results also indicate that while agricultural productivity has a positive impact on welfare growth for non-poor households, it has a negative impact for poor households.

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