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Legal issues in international agricultural trade: WTO compatibility and negotiations on economic partnership agreements between the European Union and the African, Carribbean and Pacific States









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    The sugar sub-sector in ACP countries in the post-2017 era 2017
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    The elimination of the European Union (EU) production quotas on 30 September 2017 and the continuing negotiations over the reciprocity of preferential access between the EU and the countries of the Africa-Caribbean-Pacific (ACP) group have prompted the need to examine the future of the ACP sugar industry. The ACP is concerned that the elimination of EU production quotas, may lead to a reduction in sugar imports by the EU from 3.7 million tonnes to just under 1.5 million tonnes by 2022. The recip rocity of preferential access that is being negotiated under the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between the EU and the ACP could further reduce EU sugar imports. Addressing these concerns is important for policy-making because in many low-income ACP countries, the sugar industry remains one of the major sources of both foreign exchange and employment. Therefore, sugar policy inevitably influences economic and agricultural developments in these countries.The purpose of this study is to anal yse the impact of the elimination of the European Union sugar production quotas on ACP sugar production and trade, as well as, on welfare (including farmers’ welfare) and to examine the feasible options that the ACP sugar subsectors are considering to mitigate the brunt of this policy change, particularly as it will affect sugar farmers and workers.
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    Regional fish trade in Eastern and Southern Africa: products and markets. A Fish Traders Guide 2012
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    Fish Trade is a major commodity exchange that makes fish to be the cheapest source of animal protein in Eastern and Southern Africa, particularly within the Great Lakes Region. The countries within the Eastern and Southern Africa and Indian Ocean (ESA-IO) Region agreed to a common strategy to increase the level of social, economic and environmental development and deepen regional integration through the sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources. The Program for Implementation of a Regional Fisheries Strategy (IRFS Program) for ESA-IO was launched in February 2011 with Regional Fisheries Trade as one of the five components. The other four components are Fisheries governance, Fisheries management, Monitoring, Control and Surveillance and Food Security. IRFS Program is coordinated by the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) on behalf of the Member States within the ESA-IO region. Fish trade across borders or frontiers is an old profession in Africa, which was done to facilitate distant com munities to access fish, which was mainly in smoked and sundried/salted form. Trade in East and Southern Africa has increased to cover countries within and outside the region, providing the population with access to fish preserved and processed through industrial and artisanal methods. The range of products has also expanded to include chilled, frozen, and canned fishery products in addition to fresh, salted, sundried, smoked and deep-fried products. The market outlets have also grown from the s olitary fish monger to specialised agents, specialised fish shops, retail stores and supermarkets, restaurants and hotels. The consumers’ demand for better quality products brings on board the quality and safety issue prompting the countries to establish Sanitary and Phytosanitary standards for fish and fishery products. Harmonising trade measures provides a freer market for Fish Traders within the same trade or economic bloc. It also provides opportunities for bilateral arrangements between nei ghbouring countries in dissimilar trade blocs. The conditions under which the regional fish trade operates vary from countries with moderate infrastructure, established measures, well packaged and labelled consignments to those with rudimentary facilities, inadequate measures, and poorly transacted business with high Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fish trade. The Fish Traders Guide primarily focuses on freshwater fishes from the Great Lakes region. It provides information on the various asp ects of the different fish types or species, fishery products and markets to enable the fish trader to plan and make informed decision. The guide encourages the trader to conduct legal trade and seek technical advice from relevant authorities. It also provides tips on qualities of a successful fish trader and successful business. The guide is neither a legal document nor an instruction material. However, it is a sensitisation instrument to promote responsible fish trading practices. It is IOC ai m to promote wise-use of the fisheries resources, increase in per capita fish consumption and increased accessibility of fish and fishery products by the population within the ESA-IO region. Responsible fish trading practices adhere to the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, which is central to the sustainability of fisheries resources. Good trading practices discourage illegal fishing methods and promote optimal utilisation of the catches through value addition, improved processing a nd reduction of post-harvest losses.
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    Book (series)
    No. 7. Agricultural preferences: issues for negotiation
    FAO Trade Policy Technical Notes on issues related to the WTO negotiations on agriculture
    2005
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    Access for developing country exports to developed country markets on preferential terms has been a long standing component of multilateral trading arrangements. The main purpose of preferences is to promote increases in the volume and value of exports from developing countries, thereby contributing to their growth and development the logic being that through greater volumes of sales, on a more stable basis and at higher prices than would otherwise be obtained, development and growth can be realized in the recipient country.

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