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Influence of livestock grazing within piospheres under free range and controlled conditions in Botswana








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    Policy brief
    Grazing with trees
    A silvopastoral approach to managing and restoring drylands with trees: Policy brief
    2022
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    The Grazing with trees policy brief accompanies the Grazing with trees publication, giving an overview of the positive role that optimized extensive grazing livestock farming can play in the management and restoration of drylands’ forests and lands. Trees in dryland forests and wooded areas provide key ecosystem services such as animal feed, timber, fruits and, regulation of soil and water cycles. Equally, the presence of livestock in dryland woody areas can also play an important role in the local ecosystem; not only are they a source of income for local communities, but they also help vegetation and mobilise stored biomass. When both of these ecosystem elements are wisely combined – livestock and trees – it creates an integrated agricultural system that can boost the local ecosystem, representing a welcome agro-ecological transition.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Compendium of community and indigenous strategies for climate change adaptation
    Focus on addressing water scarcity in agriculture
    2021
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    Climate change is a major challenge for life on Earth. It is mainly manifested through modifications of average temperature, rainfall intensity and patterns, winds and solar radiation. These modifications significantly affect basic resources, such as land and water resources. Populations at disproportionately higher risk of adverse consequences with global warming of 1.5°C and beyond include disadvantaged and vulnerable populations, some indigenous peoples, and local communities dependent on agricultural or coastal livelihoods (IPCC, 2018). Therefore, adaptation measures are recommended in order to cope with climate change. Indigenous peoples have developed practices for climate change adaptation, based on their long-term experience with adverse climatic effects. There was thus a need to identify such practices as they could be effectively mainstreamed in community-based adaptation programmes. This report makes an inventory of indigenous and community adaptation practices across the world. The inventory was mainly done through literature review, field work and meetings with selected organisations. The case studies documented are categorized in five technologies and practices themes, including: (1) Weather forecasting and early warning systems; (2) Grazing and Livestock management; (3) Soil and Water Management (including cross slope barriers); (4) Water harvesting (and storage practices); (5) Forest Management (as a coping strategy to water scarcity), and; (6) Integrated wetlands and fisheries management. These were then related to the corresponding main agro-ecological zones (AEZ), namely arid, semi-arid, sub-humid, humid, highlands and coastal and wetlands. The AEZ approach was considered as an entry-point to adopting or adapting an existing indigenous strategy to similar areas. Challenges that threaten the effectiveness of indigenous and community adaption strategies were identified. These challenges include climate change itself (which is affecting the indicators and resources used by communities), human and livestock population growth (which is increasing pressure on natural resources beyond their resilience thresholds), current institutional and political settings (which limit migrants’ movements and delimits pieces of usable land per household), cultural considerations of communities (such as taboos and spiritual beliefs), and the lack of knowledge transfer to younger communities. Indigenous knowledge provides a crucial foundation for community-based adaptation strategies that sustain the resilience of social-ecological systems at the interconnected local, regional and global scales. In spite of challenges and knowledge gaps, these strategies have the potential of being strengthened through the adoption and adaptation of introduced technology from other communities or modern science. Attention to these strategies is already being paid by several donor-funded organisations, although in an uncoordinated manner.
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    Article
    Implications of livestock grazing on sustainable management of montane forests: a case of south west Mau forest, Kenya
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Overgrazing is an emerging concern in Kenya’s indigenous forests. It affects regeneration, species structure and composition and soil. However, information on permissible grazing threshold and effects of overgrazing on forest ecosystem has not been adequately established in Kenya. This study was undertaken in South West Mau; the largest block forming Kenya’s biggest water tower, Mau Complex. Grazing is the main driver of degradation in the forest. The objectives of the study were to determine; dependence of forest adjacent communities on forest for grazing, effects of grazing on forest structure and composition, permissible forage off-take levels and ecologically sustainable carrying capacity. Data and information was collected through household surveys, Focus Group Discussions, vegetation assessment under varied grazing intensities (heavy, moderate and light), estimation of primary forage productivity, livestock census and computation of carrying capacity. The study found that 96% of the households grazed their livestock in the forest throughout the year. Although the forest generally showed natural regeneration as exhibited by reversed exponential curve, there was no regeneration in heavily grazed areas. Further, significant variation existed in species diversity, stand density and basal area across the grazing intensity levels. Physical count survey estimated a total 17,263 livestock (14,804 ±396 cattle, 2,365 sheep, 44 goats and 50 donkeys) grazed in the forest daily. The available forage was estimated at 14 million Kg DM/ year. This forage can support 6,104 Tropical Livestock Units (TLUs) throughout the year. Currently, the forest supports 10,629 TLUs, hence grazing threshold has been exceeded by 74%. There is need therefore, to maintain sustainable grazing threshold that would ensure forest regeneration and adequate forage availability. The study will inform grazing policies in Kenya for sustained forest management. Keywords: Deforestation and forest degradation; Biodiversity conservation; Climate change; Governance; Sustainable forest management ID: 3487126

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