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Low Greeenhouse Gas Agriculture: Mitigation and Adaptation Potential of Sustainable Farming Systems






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    Low Greenhouse Gas Agriculture: Mitigation and Adaptation Potential of Sustainable Farming Systems 2009
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    Each year, agriculture emits 10 to 12 percent of the global total of estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, some 5.1 to 6.1 Gt CO2 equivalents per year. Smith, et al. (2007) and Bellarby, et al. (2008) have proposed mitigation options for GHG emissions that include: improved crop, grazing, livestock and manure management; conservation of organic soils; restoration of degraded lands; and the use of agro-energy crops. These mitigation options challenge farmers and policy-makers to change practi ces and, inter alia, to improve development of no-till cropping, agro-forestry and integrated crop and animal farming, and to decrease use of external inputs in food and agriculture. Organic agriculture offers techniques which are valuable for consideration in further debates. This paper examines current farming practices and uses scientific data of mainly long- term field experiments as case studies for low greenhouse gas agriculture. It also elucidates the adaptive capacity of agro-ecologica l farming system approaches, using organic system case studies from the scientific literature.
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    Harvesting agriculture's multiple benefits: Mitigation, Adaptation, Development and Food Security 2009
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    Farming practices, which capture carbon and store it in agricultural soils, offer some of themost promising options for cost effective, early action on climate change in developingcountries. These practices are already available and can have multiple benefits for climatechange mitigation, adaptation, sustainable development and food security.To accelerate mitigation and adaptation action, climate financing mechanisms need totarget agriculture, reward synergistic action and leverage investment fo r up-scaling.Opportunities exist to build confidence, capacity, and commitment for early action onagricultural mitigation and adaptation in developing countries, while meeting developmentand food security requirements.
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    Coping with a changing climate: considerations for adaptation and mitigation in agriculture 2009
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    Changing climatic conditions are projected to affect food security from the local to global level. The predictability in rainy season patterns will be reduced, while the frequency and intensity of severe weather events such as floods, cyclones and hurricanes will increase; other predicted effects will include prolonged drought in some regions; and water shortages; and changes in the location and incidence of pest and disease outbreaks. Growing demand for biofuels from crops can place additional pressure on the natural resource base. New policy driven options are required to address the emerging challenges of attaining improved food security. The first two chapters of this book presents historical evidence of relationship between climate and food security, as well as current challenges of world food security posed by climate change. The “introduction” chapter highlights the need for baseline diagnostics on impacts, vulnerability and resiliency patterns and deci sion making under uncertainty. Chapter 2 elaborates on the impacts of climate change on agriculture and stresses how to effectively address these impacts, focusing on ecosystem goods and services and social well being. The chapter on “the setting: baseline information” underlines that mapping, such as capacity to cope in a country, is as important as mapping vulnerabilities to climate variability and change.

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