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Gender-specific approaches, rural institutions and technological innovations

Identifying demand- and supply-side constraints and opportunities in access, adoption and impact of agricultural technological innovations







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    Groundwater governance and the water-energy-food nexus in action: a global review of policy and practice
    SOLAW21 Technical background report
    2023
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    The dominance of insular, supply-side technocratic thinking has posed a major challenge to improving water governance in the face of mounting resource scarcity, which has itself been accentuated by climate change. During the 1990s, global discourse moved from supply-driven sectoral interventions to more holistic approaches to water governance as part of larger socioeconomic and environmental processes. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) emphasized demand-side water management and used prices, participation, entitlements, laws and regulations to strengthen water governance at hydrological rather than territorial units. More recently, there have been pleas for more integrative approaches that link land, water, energy, food, livelihoods, the environment and other spheres – each with its own, often insular, governance structure. The evolution in global thinking reflects the need to meet growing human needs by innovating approaches that enhance resilience and the sustainability of landscapes, the biosphere and the Earth as a whole. To this end, the water–energy–food (WEF) nexus advocates that society is better off seeking system-level balance rather than maximizing sectoral objectives. The nexus approach has produced prolific analytical literature over the past decade but integrating it into policy and governance faces many challenges. This review paper explores these challenges by focusing on the WEF nexus in action. We compare the nexus in several water-stressed areas of the world including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Mexico, China, Bangladesh and Gujarat (India), with additional evidence drawn from other places such as Morocco and Punjab-Haryana. We synthesize these case studies to examine the actual state of play in different locations and tease out practical lessons for mainstreaming nexus thinking in water policy and governance. The key conclusion is that specific contexts, contingencies and constituencies drive national and sub-national policies. Directing the outcomes towards the optimal nexus depends on the nature of the state, investment in institution building and, above all, ingenuity in policy design and implementation to overcome resistance to change and strengthen political capital for the leaders who back such policies.
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    Women’s access to rural finance: challenges and opportunities 2019
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    This technical paper aims to provide a review of the main demand- and supply-side constraints linked to women’s access to rural and agricultural finance, to then present the key strategies which can be adopted to address these challenges, while displaying examples of good practices and providing core policy recommendations to promote women’s financial inclusion.
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    Draft Report: Preliminary Regional Review and Gap Analysis 2013
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    The MENA region is the most food import–dependent region in the world, and net food imports are projected to rise even further in the future. Net food imports have accounted for 25–50 percent of national consumption (IFPRI, 2012), and this high reliance on imported food can be attributed to both demand- and supply-side factors. Demand-side factors include rising population and changing consumption patterns due to higher income. The MENA population tripled from 100 million in 1960 to more than 30 0 million people in 2006 and is projected to continue to grow at an annual rate of 1.7 percent. Shifting demand patterns from staples to higher-value food products, combined with limited potential for land expansion, will further increase the region’s food trade deficit. Supply-side factors include limited natural resources such as land and water.

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