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Mainstreaming Biodiversity in the Agriculture Sector in Mexico - GCP/MEX/137/GER








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    Document
    African regional multi-stakeholder dialogue on biodiversity mainstreaming across agricultural sectors. Programme and Concept Note
    Kigali, Rwanda, November 4-5, 2019
    2019
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    At the 13th Conference of the Parties (COP13) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), held in December 2016 in Cancun/Mexico, the Parties called for the mainstreaming of biodiversity across all agricultural sectors and adopted the Cancun Declaration on Mainstreaming the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity for Well-Being1. Concurrently, in late 2016, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) offered to act as the Biodiversity Mainstreaming Platform2 (the Platform), aiming at facilitating the dialogue and the exchange of information between governments and other stakeholders in regards to the sustainable use, management and restoration of biodiversity across agricultural sectors (including crop and livestock production, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture). As the first major activity of acting as the Biodiversity Mainstreaming Platform, FAO organized in Rome, Italy, the Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue in Biodiversity Mainstreaming across Agricultural Sectors (the Dialogue), between the 29th and the 31st of May 2018. The event was co-organized with the CBD Secretariat and brought together roughly 250 experts and representatives from diverse stakeholder groups. As a follow-up, FAO with the support of the Government of Rwanda and in collaboration with the African Union Commission and other partners including the CBD Secretariat, the African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Regional Office for Africa is proposing to organize an African Regional Dialogue on Biodiversity Mainstreaming across Agricultural Sectors (the Regional Dialogue), which will take place from the 4 to the 5 November 2019 in Kigali, Rwanda.
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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Guinea-Bissau 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. The agricultural sector is the main stay of the economy of Guinea-Bissau. In the absence of other resources, the sector despite being underdeveloped plays a leading role in supporting food security and job creation. Presently it contributes about 46% of national gross domestic product (GDP) with 84% of the population actively employed in primary production agriculture largely dominated by women. The majority of these farmer are small scale farmers farming on less than two hectare (2 ha). More than half (58%) of the total land in Guinea-Bissau is used for agriculture with area under forest heavily degraded by rapid exploitation. However, there are huge potentials for agricultural and forestry land including arable land estimated at about 1.5 million hectares. Farmers engage in the production of diverse crops and livestock such as cashew, rice (country’s staple food), sorghum, maize, etc largely cultivated by subsistence farmers. Women usually take up horticulture in the urban areas. Livestock production concentrated mainly in the north and east of the country is one of the main economic activities supporting food security and thousands of livelihoods. The country is divided into three agroecological zones based on ecological, climatic and demographic characteristics. Agriculture is mainly rainfed with very limited irrigated farming practised. About 82% of water withdrawn is used for agricultural purposes impelling a necessity for huge investments in irrigation to support agriculture production. The projected population growth and food demand is expected to have serious implications on food security with a potential to affect the agricultural sector. Despite the agro-forestry-pastoral potential and fisheries resources of Guinea-Bissau, many studies have shown that, the current food situation in the country is very precarious with poverty identified as the underlining cause. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the agricultural sector has been identified as very high with the country indicating reforestation as the major action for mitigating GHG emissions in its nationally determined contribution (NDC). Some challenges for the agricultural sector identified include (i) growth in population and food demand, (ii) land use change and natural resource depletion, (iii) limited marketing opportunities of agricultural commodities, and (iv) climate change and variability. Guinea-Bissau has a typical hot, humid monsoon-like tropical climate with two well-defined seasons. Agriculture is exposed to the effects of climate change with the country vulnerable to droughts, floods and sea level rise. The projected changes in temperature and rainfall are expected to have substantial impact on water resources which are already limited in their capacity to provide sufficient water for the agriculture sector. CSA technologies and practises present opportunities for addressing climate change challenges as well as for economic growth and development of the agriculture sector. Identified CSA practises in use in the country include (i) use of organic manure, (ii) use of weather information, (iii) water supply through drip irrigation, (iv) anti-erosion arrangement, (v) forage/fodder production, (vi) crop rotation, and (vii) rainwater harvesting through the Zai technique. There are a number of institutions and policies aimed at supporting and increasing agriculture productivity and advancing CSA practises in Guinea-Bissau. These include government, private sector, the national institute for agrarian research and general directorate of rural engineering with each most of the institutions profiles having CSA-related activities that deliver on all three pillars of CSA. The Ministry of environment which serves as the country’s UNFCCC focal point and Nationally Designated Authority to the Green Climate Fund (GCF), Adaptation fund, Climate Investment Fund and Global Environment Facility is responsible for the country’s climate change plans and policies. The food and agriculture organisation of the United Nations, the United Nations development programme and the international union for conservation of nature play instrumental roles in the promotion of sustainable agriculture and environmental sustainability. Most of the climate change and CSA-related funding have come from international sources with the UNDP being of great support through its signature programmes.
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    Project
    Promoting Gender-Sensitive Agrifood Value Chains in Jalisco State - GCP/MEX/311/IRE 2023
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    Mexico has made significant progress in recent years in achieving women's rights and gender equality, particularly in key areas at the federal level. Despite these achievements, women's participation in the workplace remains low or concentrated in less productive sectors. Rural women, in particular, face greater inequalities than men. Although the state of Jalisco is the most agriculturally productive in Mexico, female entrepreneurs working in the agrifood sector face multiple challenges, including poor access to technical assistance, land tenure and credit, in addition to limited participation in value chains. In this context, the present project, funded by the Government of Ireland, aimed to empower rural women by addressing these challenges. Implemented over one year, the project focused on four key components: training on gender-sensitive value chains, the creation of mentorship and entrepreneurship networks, the promotion of an enabling environment for gender equality and training for public officials overseeing female-centric programmes. Through collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (SADER) and the Ministry of Substantive Equality between Women and Men (SISEMH) in the State of Jalisco, FAO assisted female entrepreneurs in adopting effective practices that better integrated them in the selected value chains and strengthened their networks for sustainable rural entrepreneurship.

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