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Indoor oyster mushroom cultivation for livelihood diversification and increased resilience in Uganda








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    Agroforestry coffee cultivation in combination with mulching, trenches and organic composting in Uganda 2017
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    This technology describes a combination of good practices for soil and water conservation that were introduced to coffee farmers in the central cattle corridor of Uganda, with aim to enhance their resilience to dry spells, pests and diseases, as part of the Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) project on Agriculture Adaptation to Climate Change in Uganda. The concepts of mulching, trenches, organic compost and planting shade trees are briefly introduced. Additionally a cost-benefit analysis of the combination of the four good practices compared to normal practices are presented.
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    Comparative analysis of livelihood recovery in the post-conflict periods – Karamoja and Northern Uganda 2019
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    This paper examines the parallel but separate trajectories of peace-building, recovery and transformation that have occurred over the past 15 years in northern (Acholi and Lango sub-regions) and northeastern (Karamoja sub-region) Uganda. While keeping in mind the key differences in these areas, we highlight the similarities in the nature of recovery, the continuing challenges and the need for external actors to keep in mind the ongoing tensions and vulnerability that could undermine the tenuous peace. The initial peace processes in both northern Uganda and Karamoja were largely top-down in nature, with little participation from the affected populations. In Karamoja, the Ugandan military started a forced disarmament campaign in 2006. This was the second such effort in five years and was top-down and heavy-handed. Although many observers gave it little chance of success, by 2013 large-scale cattle raids were infrequent, and road ambushes were almost non-existent. Critically, local initiatives eventually emerged in parallel to the top-down disarmament efforts. Prime amongst these were local resolutions adopted in 2013–2014 that created a system of compensation for thefts, enforced by “peace committees.” In northern Uganda, a top-down, politically negotiated peace process between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and the Government of Uganda ended two decades of fighting in 2006. The internally displaced person (IDP) camps were disbanded, and thousands of displaced people returned to their rural homes, some because they no other option once assistance in the camps ceased. One of the most important factors in recovery in Karamoja has been the growth of markets. Traders were reluctant to bring wares to the region during the period of insecurity, and hence goods were few and prices high. Today, most trading centres host markets on a weekly basis, and shops have consistent inventories. In northern Uganda, the biggest driver of recovery has been the return of displaced people to their homes and the resumption of farming. By 2011, crop production had resumed its pre-conflict status as the primary livelihood in the region. In both locations, however, engagement in markets is limited, and many people remain economically marginalized. Challenges to recovery and long-term stability are similar across the two locations. Both northern Uganda and Karamoja continue to struggle with food insecurity and malnutrition, despite the massive influx of development funds, improved security and expansion of markets. In northern Uganda, the conflict continues to influence household livelihoods. Households that have a member who experienced war crimes are consistently worse off. These continuing problems with food security and nutrition call into question many assumptions about recovery and development. In particular, the idea that peace will bring a natural bounce in economic and household well-being does not appear to hold up in these cases. Additional structural challenges to recovery in both locations include climate change and environmental degradation, poor governance and corruption, limited opportunities for decent work, livelihood transformation and loss, and conflict over land. These factors reinforce each other and make it extremely difficult for average households to develop sustainable and secure livelihoods. External interventions often fail to take into account the local priorities and realities in these areas. Many programmes are place based or focus on rural areas, but the population is in flux. This is especially true for young people. In addition, while many people are doing much better than they were 15 years ago, others are being pushed out of pastoralism and are struggling to achieve diversified and sustainable livelihoods. Overall, while the recent trajectories of recovery in Karamoja and northern Uganda are remarkably similar, the context, livelihoods and challenges in each location are importantly unique. National actors should not seek to derive combined approaches or policies that lump together these two areas. In both cases, the lived reality, history and experiences of the population should be central to designing appropriate, effective and sustainable responses to the ongoing obstacles to a stable peace and full recovery.
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    Pilot project: Introduction of alternative income generating activities for livelihood diversification for fishing dependent communities on the Islands of the three riparian States of Lake Victoria
    GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project
    2013
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    The Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, with support from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, under the implementation of a regional strategy for the Eastern and Southern African - Indian Ocean region program, is implementing a pilot project: ‘The Introduction of Alternative Income Generating Activities for Livelihood Diversification for Fishing Dependent Communities on the Islands of the Three Riparian States of Lake Victoria’. A baseline survey on vulnerability/livel ihood/poverty in all project target areas/groups was undertaken in June 2013. The purpose was to establish vulnerability indicators and livelihood/dependency/poverty patterns associated with selected self-help groups located on selected islands of Lake Victoria in the riparian countries: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The other objective was to identify potential alternative income generating activities that would reduce dependency on fishing and fish resources. The selected self-help groups and th eir respective beaches and islands are: Nyisiaya Women’s Group in Ndeda Beach, on Ndeda Island and USIA Youth Group in Mahanga, on Mageta Island (Kenya); Mpola Mpola at Gori, on Jagusi Island and Ddajje Star Group in Ddajje, on Buggala Island (Uganda); REEC/UPENDO in Ihumbo, on Bumbire Island and NEEMA Community Group in Igalula, on Ukerewe Island (Tanzania). The six self-help groups and respective fishing communities were interviewed by means of focus group discussions and personal interviews o n major areas of concern: group status; ownership of assets; access to services; vulnerability; income and expenditure; poverty and gender. The results show that the fisher communities are primarily concerned with, in order of priority: health; declining fish catches; safety on the lake; credit access, and education. The fishers acknowledge their high dependence on fish stating that during times of drought, market fluctuations and weather changes the communities are more vulnerable. They therefo re understand the need for diversification of income. The survey findings show that most self-help groups were formed to augment income, food and access to credit. The majority of the members of the self-help groups have access to land; semi-permanent housing; a few of their own livestock; two meals a day; no means of their own transport; no access to electricity; inadequate access to safe water; low savings; and little or no education. The study shows that food and education are the main expend iture items and there is little money available for diversification into non-fishery income generating activities. The different alternative income generating activities (IGAs) were proposed to supplement income, diversify sources of income and provide food. The IGAs include: crop farming, identified for food security and supplementary income for group members’ households; poultry farming for eggs and meat to generate income; cattle rearing for milk and meat to generate income and supplement die t; fish farming to diversify, generate income and reduce fishing pressure on Lake Victoria.  4 The next steps are to support the target groups technically and financially so that they can undertake the proposed IGAs to meet their respective goals. In line with the objectives of the project, the following activities will be undertaken:  Organize and facilitate a one-day validation meeting for at least 20 relevant stakeholders to present the results of the assessment and proposed work plans an d interventions at the premises of the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization;  Capacity building of micro-project stakeholders and beneficiaries to sustain the initiative (business, marketing, management of micro-enterprises);  Carry out the livelihood diversification activities according to the work plans and detailed budget agreed;  Disseminate the preliminary results of the livelihood diversification activities through different media at the national level;  Organize and facilitate a final meeting at the national level for at least 20 relevant stakeholders to present the results of the poverty reduction activities and the proposed upscale/replication of interventions.

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