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Estimation of the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity in Chilean municipalities using small area estimation methods









FAO. 2024. Estimation of the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity in Chilean municipalities using small area estimation methods. Rome. 



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    Microbial safety of lipid-based ready-to-use foods for management of moderate acute malnutrition and severe acute malnutrition – Second report 2021
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    Lipid-based ready-to-use foods (RUFs) for the nutritional management of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are provided to children from 6 months to 59 months of age within the context of emergency feeding programmes supervised by governments. Based on the review, the expert committee considered that children with SAM have an increase in susceptibility to bacteraemia and sepsis that is probably between twofold and fivefold compared with children who are not malnourished and are of the same age and live in the same communities. On the basis of its common occurrence as a cause of infections and serious illnesses in children with SAM, and its documented ability to contaminate, survive in, and cause outbreaks of illness associated with low-moisture foods similar to RUFs, the expert committee concluded that Salmonella is the pathogen of most concern in lipid-based RUFs. Many outbreaks of foodborne salmonellosis have been determined to be associated with low-moisture foods that were contaminated at low levels. Therefore, the expert committee carefully considered the qualitative microbiological analyses of RUFs and the contamination levels that could be inferred, and entered into an extended deliberation of dose-response modelling to find a path toward a reasonable approximation of the likely morbidity and mortality in SAM children that could be anticipated from consumption of RUFs contaminated at the estimated levels and observed frequency. The expert committee described three approaches that purchasers of RUFs might use to establish microbiological criteria to assure the safety of RUFs and to communicate to manufacturers their safety expectations. These approaches are: (i) reference to existing standards established for similar low-moisture foods; (ii) determining an acceptable increase in risk over the pre-existing baseline of illness from other sources of exposure; and (iii) process verification sampling using the moving window technique. The microbiological criteria derived by each of these approaches accomplish different purposes, and which is most appropriate is determined by the conditions of manufacture and use.
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    The relationship between food insecurity and dietary outcomes
    An analysis conducted with nationally representative data from Kenya, Mexico, Samoa and the Sudan
    2021
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    Little research has been conducted on the association of food insecurity, particularly at the moderate level, and dietary consumption in low- and middle-income countries. This study expands on previous works by considering cross-country comparable measures of food insecurity that are calibrated against the global Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES). The FAO Statistics Division has been publishing estimates of the prevalence of food insecurity, based on the FIES, since 2017. The FIES is the first standardized measure, of people's direct experiences of food insecurity, appropriate for application on a global scale. The prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity based on the FIES is one of the official SDG indicators (2.1.2). The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between the severity of food insecurity, as measured with the FIES (or an analogous experience-based food insecurity scale calibrated to the global reference scale), and dietary intake using microdata from four middle-income countries from different world regions: Kenya, Mexico, Samoa, and Sudan.
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    Europe and Central Asia - Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition 2023
    Statistics and trends
    2023
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    The Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition in Europe and Central Asia for 2023 – Statistics and Trends provides a comprehensive analysis of Sustainable Development Goal 2, focusing specifically on Target 2.1 (ending hunger and ensuring universal access to food) and Target 2.2 (eradicating all forms of malnutrition). Additionally, the report evaluates progress concerning three global nutrition targets: adult obesity, exclusive breastfeeding, and low birthweight, as endorsed by the 2012 World Health Assembly. It also offers an updated analysis of the cost and affordability of a healthy diet within the Europe and Central Asia region.Recent estimates affirm that hunger prevalence remains relatively low in the ECA region. Food insecurity at moderate or severe levels is notably lower compared to global estimates. However, food insecurity levels remain significantly higher than those recorded before the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the ECA region has made significant strides in reducing undernutrition overall, some countries still exhibit relatively high rates of stunting (over 10 percent) and wasting (over 3 percent). Overall, the region is not on track in addressing childhood overweight, adult obesity, anemia among women aged 15 to 49, and exclusive breastfeeding.Healthy diets play a crucial role in safeguarding against the impacts of malnutrition, fostering improved health outcomes. Notably, in the past year, the Western Balkans experienced the highest cost for a healthy diet within the region, surpassing both the ECA and global averages. Overall, there has been an increase in the number of individuals able to afford a healthy diet over the past year, while the percentage unable to afford it remains significantly lower than the global estimate.

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