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Guidelines for formulating national forest financing strategies










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    Article
    Climate change, forest restoration and payment for ecosystem services
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) is an innovative approach towards tackling climate change by using financial incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation. The paper deliberates upon PES approach to forest restoration and various contexts in which it has been applied. An important need is to be flexible and adapt to lessons learned and changing circumstances. PES can concomitantly benefit buyers and sellers and improve the resource base. Costa Rica pioneered PES by establishing a programme of payments. Its 1996 forestry law explicitly recognizes four forest ecosystem services: carbon fixation and sequestration, hydrological services, biodiversity protection, and scenic beauty. Through financial and legal mechanisms, beneficiaries of forest service compensate those who protect them. Indian judiciary instituted a compensatory afforestation mechanism. It collects funds from buyers to finance the restoration of forests and related ecological and aesthetic landscapes. This mechanism moved into implementation mode about 10 years ago with a corpus fund of over 2.2 billion US dollars and to release resources for forest restoration equal to the interest earned. Drawing upon case studies, the paper concludes that PES potential to concurrently support sustainable development and forest restoration depends upon governance system and design of payment schemes. Since climate change shall impact the capacity of forests to provide vital ecosystem services, the projected socio-economic consequences will be severe, more so for forest-dependent communities vulnerable to climate variability. PES strategies and schemes thus need to be designed to promote holistic and contextual approach to forest restoration, ecosystem services, human wellbeing and climate change adaptation andmitigation. Keywords: Climate, Ecosystems, Economics, Finance, Forests, PES ID: 3486186
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Measuring and modelling soil carbon stocks and stock changes in livestock production systems - Guidelines for assessment. Version 1 2019
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    These guidelines are a product of the Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance (LEAP) Partnership, a multi-stakeholder initiative whose goal is to improve the environmental sustainability of the livestock supply chains through better methods, metrics and data. These guidelines provide a harmonized, international approach for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) stock and stock changes in livestock production systems. The intended uses of this document are all those having an interest in quantifying soil carbon stocks or stock changes. Wide is the range of objectives and scales for SOC stock change studies, for example: Global or regional accounting for GHG emissions and removals from the land sector as a component of climate change accounting; Monitoring, reporting and verification obligations for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; Analysis of the climate change impact of livestock products; Evaluation of the environmental impacts of grazing land management for animal agriculture; Assessment of the mitigation potential of agricultural practices at an industry, region or farm scale; Implementing mitigation options in an emissions trading or other market mechanism where payments for SOC sequestration depend on accurate and verifiable quantification; Research into soil and biological processes affecting SOC stocks and dynamics. A set of methods and approaches are recommended for use by individual farmers or land managers, by those undertaking life cycle assessment of livestock products, policy makers, or regulators at local, regional or national scales.
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    Document
    Climate Change Financing. What Are the Challenges and the Opportunities for Financing Agriculture in Africa?
    Issue Papers. EASYPol Module 100
    2011
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    While agriculture contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which need mitigating, it also provides opportunities for significant carbon storage, for example, in tree crops and in soils. In fact, the global sequestration potential through increasing organic soil carbon via improved agricultural practices is estimated to be 1 to 6 Gt of carbon per year. In Africa, one of the most significant consequences of conventional agriculture is the rapid depletion of soil organic ma tter (SOM). Repeated cultivation and use degrades soils and lowers crop yields while increases production costs. African farmers have the potential to both reduce GHG emissions and increase agricultural yields. The technical mitigation potential of agriculture by 2030 in Africa reaches 2Gt of CO2-eq per year1 . With the promise of emission reductions, carbon finance could underwrite the training of farmers in new practices as well as establish Monitoring, Verifying, Reporting (MRV) systems to track that both carbon and agricultural benefits are accrued2 . As potential interest in African agricultural carbon projects grows, the pipeline of prospective projects also expands. Current performing carbon funded projects present four main similarities : (i) a clearly defined geographic delimitation, (ii) an aggregator which is a main organization grouping the beneficiaries and providing an eventual channel to provide incentives to beneficiaries, (iii) a clearly quantified carbon red uction target based on GHG calculator as FAO EX-ACT, and (iv) access to carbon funding support.

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