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Utilization of fruit and vegetable wastes as livestock feed and as substrates for generation of other value-added products










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    Book (stand-alone)
    Biofuel co-products as livestock feed - Opportunities and challenges 2012
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    Climate change and predicted shortages of fossil fuels present major challenges. Currently, biofuel production is from agricultural crops grown primarily on arable land. Conflict with the traditional use of arable land, itself a limited resource, to produce food and animal feed must be avoided and economic sustainability assured. At present cereals, especially maize and wheat, and sugar cane are used for ethanol production, with soybean, oil palm and rapeseed for biodiesel production. The expa nding transport industry requires increasing amounts of biofuels, and an increasing market for co-products has generated a need for new feedstocks. Cellulosic material, often available from sub-prime land with minimal inputs, and other non-conventional sources are being investigated. Before being used as feeds, some seeds and cakes will require detoxification. The contribution of micro-algae, production of which can be achieved in coastal waters, is likely to grow in importance. These developmen ts are mirrored the broadening of the animal species receiving the co-products, from ruminants, especially cattle, and pigs to poultry and fish (aquaculture). Further developments include enhancement of the use of existing co-products and the introduction of new ones. This publication collates, discusses and summarizes state-of-the-art knowledge on the use as livestock feed and future availability of co-products from the biofuel industry. The levels at which the co-products could be safely use d in livestock diets are also presented. Throughout the book, gaps in knowledge and research topics needed to address them have been identified. These include standardization of product quality to assist ration formulation; testing of new products; development of detoxification procedures; research on micro-algae; and life cycle analysis linked to traditional nutritional appraisal. This publication covers a wide array of co-products and is a timely contribution, as people's aspirations are ris ing, evident from the increasing demand for livestock products and an ever greater reliance on transport, coupled with the challenge of maintaining agricultural production when faced with global warming. We hope that the information here synthesized will be useful to policy-makers, researchers, the feed industry, science managers and NGOs, supporting them in making information- based decisions on issues such as food-feed-fuel competition. Hopefully it will help confront the emerging challenges o f global warming, in addition to making efficient use as livestock feed of a wide range of currently available and future co-products from the biofuel industry.
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    Book (series)
    Use of lesser-known plants and plant parts as animal feed resources in tropical regions 2012
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    A study was conducted to harvest indigenous knowledge on feed resources with the aim to enlarge feed resource base by identifying alternative and lesser-known feeds. For sustainable intensification of animal production, the use of such feed materials is of great importance mainly for three reasons: the global demand for grains being higher than the global grain production, stiff competition between man and livestock for the existing food and feed resources, and the need for feeds that are adapted to harsh environmental conditions due to the ongoing climate change. The study identified 20 plants which are available in harsh environment conditions of the tropics and sub-tropics, palatable to animals, fed by farmers and contain crude protein levels higher than some commonly used ruminant feeds. Other nutritional and medicinal attributes reported by the respondents are also discussed in this paper. The cultivation, use and promotion of such under-utilized plants, avai lable in harsh environment conditions, will enhance plant biodiversity and also increase animal productivity in challenging situations of high temperature, water scarcity and soil degradation being increasingly inflicted by the ongoing climate change.
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    Booklet
    Ethiopia | Availability and utilization of agroindustrial by-products as animal feed | 2018 2019
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    One of the major constraints for the very low production and productivity of livestock in Ethiopia is the poor quality and inadequate quantity of available feed. Agro-industrial by-products (AIBPs) can play an important role in meeting the widely prevalent feed shortage in the country. The AIBPs are usually less fibrous, rich in energy and/or protein contents. They have high digestibility and energy values compared with other classes of feed resources. The major AIBPs produced in Ethiopia include by-products from flour millings, sugar factories, edible oil processing factories, breweries, and abattoirs. These by-products play a vital role in the feeding of livestock mainly in urban and peri-urban livestock systems. The spatial and temporal availability of AIBPs in different parts of Ethiopia has not been quantified. Information on the utilization of such resources is also scanty. Data on availability of these resources is important for developing and using appropriate feeding strategies, improving livestock production and productivity, enhancing the efficiency of AIBPs utilization, decreasing burden on the environment and promoting technologies that further circular economy. This study was aimed at assessing the spatial and temporal availability of major AIBPs and their use as livestock feed. Information on storage and transport of these by-products has also been recorded with the aim to identify ‘hotspots’ at which the wastage takes place, and to suggest ways to reduce it.

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