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Bee Viruses










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    Book (series)
    Responsible use of antimicrobials in beekeeping 2021
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    These guidelines focus on responsible use of antimicrobials in sustainable apiculture. Following a one-health approach, they aim to protect not only honey bees, but even human health (e.g. reducing the risks of residues in hive products and preventing development of antimicrobial resistance) and the environment. The best way to reach this goal is to prevent and to guarantee the early detection of clinical cases of the main honey bee diseases through the application of good beekeeping practices and biosecurity measures. And when medicines are needed for the honey bees, specific indication is provided to reduce their impact: choosing medicines with a low environmental impact, using them timely, prudently and following the due instructions. It is imperative to apply only those active ingredients that are registered for the honey bees and that are ideally prescribed by a veterinarian. Antibiotics should always be avoided as much as possible to reduce risks of residues in hive products and to prevent risks of antimicrobial resistance. Prudent and limited use of antimicrobials in beekeeping benefits the quality of bee products and the safety of surrounding ecosystems, while also slowing development of antimicrobial resistance, which is a widespread issue affecting multiple sectors. Finally, in this document, for the first time, a progressive management pathway (PMP) has been devised for honey bees, as well as surveys were created to assess current beekeeping practices and general awareness of topical issues such as AMR. The overall aim of these guidelines is to provide information of current challenges within the sector and orientate towards sustainable production and honey bee colony health.
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    Beekeeping opportunity for the smallholders in the cold winter deserts of Uzbekistan 2023
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    Beekeeping (or apiculture) refers to raising the colonies of honey is hives. Honey, wax, pollen, propolis, bee milk and poisons are the most valuable foods and unique raw materials for human health, medicine and pharmaceutical industry. Another important function of beekeeping is to assist in pollination of cross-pollinated crops. Bees are also raised for selling them to individuals interested in beekeeping.
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    Book (series)
    Good beekeeping practices: Practical manual on how to identify and control the main diseases of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) 2020
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    This is a practical tool to help beekeepers, veterinarians and beekeeping advisory services to properly identify main honeybee diseases and to take the most appropriate actions in the apiary to control and/or prevent disease outbreaks. This publication follows the TECA publication Main bee diseases: good beekeeping practices (2018) which provided a more general overview of good beekeeping practices for bee diseases. This manual is a unique publication because, through its presentation of practical information, simple visuals, and understandable content, it helps beekeepers to correctly identify main honeybee diseases in a timely manner. More specifically, the manual creatively illustrates actions which facilitate the identification of disease symptoms. It also presents a comprehensive list of good beekeeping practices to adopt in the apiary as well as biosafety measures to reduce the risk of the introduction and the spread of main honeybee diseases. The manual’s overall objective is ultimately to support a more sustainable beekeeping sector.

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