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Evergreen agriculture: Conservation Agriculture in maize production in Malawi.








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    Report of the IOTC CPUE Workshop 2013
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    A Workshop developing assessing CPUE trends and techniques used by IOTC RFMO was held in AZTI Teclia in San Sebastian (Spain), from 21 to 22 October 2013. The following were the key issues and recommendations identified at the meeting: 1. Use of newer standardization techniques (GLMM, GEOSTATISTICAL APPROACHES and CORE AREA APPROACHES) using operatiol data to assess divergence in CPUE?s across fleets. 1.1. While standard approaches worked well in most cases, the CPUE WG recommended that newer ap proaches should be tested. The results of the workshop conducted over the two day period, indicated that the GLMM models tend to capture the trends better. In addition incorporating more vessel specifics and using geostatistical techniques is another approach to pursue over time. Filly, the use of core-area approaches may be informative for by-catch species. Moreover, the majority feeling of the group was that during CPUE standardization the use of operatiol data when they are available is recom mended as it will allow to capture the covariates that are important during the standardization process. 1.2. The strongest recommendation that came out of the workshop was that in areas where CPUE’s diverged the CPC’s were encouraged to meet inter-sessiolly to resolve the differences. In addition, the major CPC’s were encouraged to develop a combined CPUE from multiple fleets so it may capture the true abundance better. Approaches to possibly pursue are the following: i) Assess filtering approa ches on data and whether they have an effect, ii) examine spatial resolution on fleets operating and whether this is the primary reason for differences, and iii) examine fleet efficiencies by area, iv) use operatiol data for the standardization, and v) have a meeting amongst all operatiol level data across all fleets to assess an approach where we may look at catch rates across the broad areas. 1.3. Simulation studies could also be developed to assess which models work best (delta log-Normal, ze ro inflated versus standard GLM+constant, Tweedie). 1.4. Operatiol level data is useful if we want to quantify fishing fleet efficiency using fleet dymic covariates. More applications could be developed using the methods developed by Hoyle and Okamoto (2010), or Hoyle (2009), and prelimirily presented by Dr. Okamoto at the CPUE workshop. 1.5. Assess how core area Standardization works along with out of core or boundary area effects. 1.6. Environmental data would be useful to consider in relation to standardization approaches. However, the way it is usually performed in GLMs, where an environmental covariate is associated to each observation (in regular 1°, 5° or even 10° grids) , may not be the most pertinent as it does not allow to identify the ecological processes which may affect CPUE. Altertively, GLMs could be performed in sub-areas where the variability pattern of the environmental sigture is well identified (using spatial EOFs to delineate those sub-areas). In such sub-areas, GL Ms could be designed with and without environmental covariates to understand the potential effect of the environment. Environmental covariates should be in limited numbers (the lesser the better) and selected in order to test hypothesis on the ecological processes at stake. Develop robust CPUE series for other species and Working Parties. 2.1. The Working Group recommended to also focus the efforts in other species such as Temperate Tu. In addition the WG recommended, developing better CPUE data for Neritic Tu, and also improving the data and standardization on marlins and sharks. 2.2. Develop a reference manual for use in performing a CPUE standardization for any fleet in any working party (e.g. neritic tu WP or temperate tu WP). Criteria for inclusion of the data in a stock assessment should also be developed (possibly using ICCAT techniques as a baseline). With regard to Purse Seine data the following were recommended: 3.1. Approaches being pursued by EU scientist have some promise, and more work should be put in the development of an index of abundance for the PS fleet on Skipjack Tu, Yellowfin Tu and Bigeye Tu. 3.2. The availability of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data is a major requirement for the purse seine fishing fleet as it ebles to spatialize the nomil effort (i.e. fishing or searching time), which is key to appreciate the temporal changes in the spatial extent of the prospected areas. VMS data may also be used to alyze PS trajectories with the aim to discrimit e sets on FADs equipped with buoys from free school sets, log sets and foreign FADs sets (see after) 3.3. Purse seiners currently fish during the same trip on a combition of free-swimming and drifting FAD-associated schools. In addition, fishing on FADs results from both the detection of vessel-owned FADs through GPS geolocation systems as well as from the finding of 'foreign' FADs through bird detection for instance. Future alyses should focus on the separation of fishing time between searching and running towards FADs. Classification methods based on indicators describing spatial behaviour of vessels could eble to define typical fishing strategies and categorize trip components into such categories. 3.4. Data available on FAD activities collection have improved recently. Future alyses should focus on the definition of a fishing effort for purse seiners using FADs by (i) looking at the influence of the number of FADs owned by a vessel on individual CPUEs, (ii) by investigating the CPU Es in areas characterized by strong contrasts in FAD density. The influence of supply vessels on catch rates (e.g. the number of sets per day) and on the overall fishing capacity of the PS fleet should also be investigated at the vessel level through the information available from supply logbooks. 3.5. Alyses of temporal changes in individual and overall fleet catchability from CPUEs should be conducted to estimate fishing power creep and investigate how such changes are related with some major technological changes known for the PS fleet (e.g. bird radar). Including vessel effects into GLMs can reveal useful insights on vessel efficiency for such alyses. Attention should be paid also for change over time of fishery indicators which are part of the CPUE (e.g., number of set by day, % of successful set, catch size of the set). 4. The CPUE Workshop participants recommended that a thorough alysis of the history of the fishery would be useful for references for each species. In addition, t he Group agreed that a central body (the Secretariat) should undertake additiol activities in key areas (Neritic tus where they can develop/collate the existing data on catch and effort and alyse this for some key species (eg. Longtail and Kawakawa)). 5. The CPUE Standardization Working Group agreed that a reference document that IOTC could use in what criteria should be used in utilizing a dataset for CPUE Standardization for all WP would incorporate the specifics of the temporal and spatial co verage of the data, and useful covariates that could quantify the fishing activity and the environment in which the fish lived.
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    Article
    Agroforestry systems: Conservation of biodiversity in Bahia - Brazil
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Biodiversity agroforestry systems are characterized as an integrated land use model for the purpose of forest, agricultural and livestock production for family subsistence, strategic systems for restoration and conservation of degraded environments. These provide a variety of environmental services that directly or indirectly promote benefits to humans and the environment. In Brazil, studies on agroforestry systems are currently focused on technical, biological and social rather than economic aspects. Faced with the intensification of agriculture, agroforestry systems represent a possible solution to obtain continuous production, combining conservation practices and improving the use of natural resources, within the premises of sustainability. This study aimed to evaluate the multi-tiered commercial agroforestry systems of family farmers in an area of Atlantic Forest in the Bahia state - Brazil, identifying the plant species and their uses. The species of greatest interest to family farmers were cataloged and through a floristic inventory, productive agroforestry systems were evaluated 118 species were identified (68.4% food, 14.5% medicinal, 13.2% wood). The values of the effect on the support service showed that biodiverse agroforestry systems do not significantly differ from the preserved forests. The analysis of the application of the principles of ecologically based agriculture made it possible to assess the existence of a productive differentiation and to verify that the growing diversification of production ensured a greater number of principles of ecologically based agriculture applied in the day-to-day activities of productive activities, thus safes play an important role in the food security of family farmers. The results found bring practical implications for the discussion of those production models on the restoration of ecological processes in the Atlantic Forest and the role they can play at the multifunctional landscapes of rural properties. Keywords: Agroforest systems, agroecological principles, tree species, biodiversity, family agriculture. ID: 3488444
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    Agroforestry: A panacea to energy production and food security in Nigeria
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Agroforestry is an ancient practice with numerous benefits ranging from climate change to Energy supply, Shelter and structures, Plant resources, Biodiversity and Improving rural livelihood. In Nigeria the adoption of agroforestry systems varies across the different ecological zones; the practices in rainforest and derived savanna zones include homestead garden, taungya and alley farming, while scattered farm trees, shelterbelt and silvopastural are practiced in the savanna zones. Like every other developing country, Nigeria is faced with a major problem in the energy sector and it also faces the herculean task in feeding its ever-increasing population. However, these could be alleviated by annexing products and services available through Agroforestry value chain. Nigeria is greatly endowed with abundant biomass resources which serves as raw material for the production of green energy capable of meeting her energy needs. Wood fuel consist of four main commodities namely fuelwood (firewood), charcoal, black liquor (bio oil) and wood waste in the form of sawdust. Briquette fuel is also an alternative source of energy produced from forestry and agricultural materials such as sawdust, sugarcane, wastes and some dead woods. The multifunctional approach of Agroforestry system increases food production by increasing resilience of crops for improved food security through the combined production of trees and agricultural crops on the same piece of land for economic development. Available data has shown that there is a considerable increase in the quality and quantity of food crops and other agricultural produce using Agroforestry techniques such as Pastoral farming in the North, Home-garden in the East and Taungya farming system in the Western part of Nigeria. Considering the economic potential of agroforestry in food security and as renewable source of energy, various forms of agroforestry should be adopted based on its relevance to different ecological zones of Nigeria. Keywords: Agroforestry, Homestead, Biofuel, Briquette and Food Security ID:3476093

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