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Developments of international agricultural trade in the European Region








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    Support for Boosting Intra-African Trade in Agricultural Commodities and Services to Advance the Implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) - TCP/RAF/3708 2022
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    African Heads of State and Government, through the 2014 Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation for Shared Prosperity and Improved Livelihoods (Malabo Declaration), have made a clear commitment on Boosting Intra African Trade ( in agricultural commodities and services This commitment includes harnessing market and trade opportunities locally, regionally and internationally by creating and enhancing policies, institutional conditions and support systems and tripling intra African trade in agricultural commodities and services by 2025 The 2017 Inaugural Biennial Review Report of the African Union Commission on the Implementation of the Malabo Declaration found that only three of the 29 Members reporting on the commitment to BIAT in agricultural commodities and services were on track to meet the commitment by 2025 Meeting this commitment on time requires building capacity to address policy, technical and investment constraints and minimize domestic food price volatility Despite the impressive gross domestic product ( growth rates experienced on the continent in recent years, Africa has remained a marginal player in both domestic and world trade The share of intra African merchandise exports in 2017 was around 19 6 percent of total exports (by value) The relatively low performance of intra African trade in agricultural commodities is of particular concern In the face of abundant unexploited suitable resources for agriculture, the continent depends on extra African sources for more than 80 percent of imports of food and agricultural products As a result, Africa faces a food and agricultural import bill growing at a yearly average of 3 6 percent, reaching USD 72 7 billion in 2017 To take advantage of fast growing intra African market opportunities, African agriculture must undergo a structural transformation that entails shifting from highly diversified and subsistence oriented production systems towards more market oriented ones This requires both a bold shift in policy and substantial investment to overcome the severe under capitalization, as well as low productivity and competitiveness of the sector In order to tackle the constraints on national and regional food marketing and trade, there is a need to face up to two broad categories of challenges The first set of challenges concerns prioritizing and filling the deficit in hard and soft market and trade infrastructure The second set of challenges requires tackling the policy and institutional deficiencies to strengthen intra regional and inter regional market integration and trade facilitation.
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    Innovative agricultural finance and risk management. Strengthening food production and trade in the transition region
    FAO Investment Centre. Directions in Investment No. 7
    2012
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    Ensuring that food production keeps up with population and income growth, changing dietary patterns and climate conditions in the decades to come is but one of the challenges currently facing developing and advanced countries around the globe. The world’s population is expected to stabilize at around 9.1 billion people in 2050, a 30 percent increase from current numbers, but demand for food will grow by 70 percent. To keep up with the pace of demand growth, yields need to improve drastically, y et there is little scope to expand acreage. Transition countries, some of which face food security problems of their own, can play an important role in achieving global food security as yields can be improved. Countries such as Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, which have been net grain importers up to the late 1980s, can emerge as the world’s leading grain exporters. In order to meet rising food demand, significant investment from the private sector will be required in these tra nsition countries. Such investment needs to be catalysed through supportive policy and regulatory, legal and institutional frameworks. International financial institutions, in turn, can facilitate the creation of these frameworks in transition country governments. This paper focuses on one particularly important action area: how can various agricultural finance and risk management products, mechanisms and institutions that are relatively new to the transition region, enhance the region’s food production, processing and trading systems? These products, mechanisms and institutions include: market-based price risk management, weather index insurance, structured finance and other innovative forms of finance, warehouse receipt (WHR) systems and commodity exchanges. The paper aims to identify how international financial institutions such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) can most effectively leverage their investments and technical assistance programmes to boos t the adoption and scaling up of such products, mechanisms and institutions
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    FAO/WFP Crop and Food Security Assessment - Sierra Leone
    Special Report
    2014
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    The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak resulted in a serious shock to the agriculture and food sectors in 2014. The epidemic started spreading when crops were being planted and expanded during the crop maintenance and the critical harvesting period for the staple crops rice, maize and cassava. Nationally, the aggregate food crop production is estimated at about 2.09 million tonnes, about five percent lower than 2013. Milled rice production, accounting for about 85 percent of the cereal productio n, is estimated at 770 000 tonnes, about 8 percent below last year. However, the modest decline at the national level masks the significant harvest declines at sub-national levels of up to 17 percent. Cereal import requirements in 2015 are therefore estimated at 300 000 tonnes, slightly up from last year. Rice import requirements account for about 215 000 tonnes of the total. With commercial imports estimated at 285 000 tonnes the uncovered gap is estimated at about 55 000 tonnes for which addit ional resources and international assistance is required. The significant impact of Ebola on export earnings is expected to have compromised the country’s ability to import more. Border closures, quarantine measures and other restrictions have seriously disrupted marketing of goods including agricultural commodities. Trade activities have declined significantly, particularly in quarantined districts. About 450 000 people, or 7.5 percent of the population, are estimated to be severely food insecu re as of December 2014. The impact of EVD accounts for more than a quarter of the food insecure. The number of food insecure is projected to increase to 610 000 by March 2015, 280 000 of which are attributed to EVD. About 76 percent of the Ebola related food insecure individuals live in rural areas. The most food insecure households include food crop producers; fishermen and hunters; and unskilled labourers. The analysis indicates that different type of food assistance will be required. In addit ion to covering the import gap, cash/voucher transfers where appropriate can assure food access for people whose main livelihood is not agriculture. Given reductions in trader activity, local purchase in surplus areas can assure that surpluses are being redistributed. Frequent food security monitoring activities must continue as the situation is highly fragile and could further flare up at any time. The loss of livelihoods coupled with this market uncertainties means that there is a need for fle xibility both in the type and scale of intervention that will be needed in 2015.

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