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Livestock and Development - CARTMAN special issue









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    Project
    Strengthening Capacity for Enhanced Animal Nutrition Services - TCP/BHU/3704 2022
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    Bhutanese farmers practise mixed farming, with crops and livestock rearing forming an integral part of their livelihoods, particularly in rural communities At farmers’ level, agriculture, livestock and forest interventions are integrated farmers depend on livestock for manure for soil fertility, and dairy products for nutrition and income, while forests provide feed and fodder for animals, timber for construction, wood for heating and cooking, and non wood forest products for consumption and sale Communities in higher altitudes depend more on livestock as the farming of crops has limited scope In semi urban areas, commercial dairy and other livestock products have also emerged with improved breeds Animal nutrition has thus become more important than ever before The only animal nutrition laboratory ( equipped to analyse feed and fodder samples in the country is in Jakar in north central Bhutan However, the laboratory lacks capacity in terms of both institutional and human resources Owing to insufficient government funding, the ANL is not fully functional and, despite the important national mandate of the laboratory, the government has not been able to equip it adequately, nor train personnel to carry out important feed analysis functions Some of the existing equipment is obsolete and not serviceable, while laboratory staff members have not received adequate training in the use of the laboratory facilities The ANL needs equipment for the analysis of feed and fodder samples Training and refresher courses are also required to ensure that laboratory staff members are kept abreast of the latest developments in livestock nutrition.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Legume Trees and other Fodder Trees as Protein Sources for Livestock 1992
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    Fodder trees and fodder shrubs have always played a significant role in feeding domestic animals. In fact, trees and shrubs are increasingly recognized as important components of animal feeding, particularly as suppliers of protein and especially in harsh environmental conditions. In such situations, the available grazing is not generally sufficient to meet the maintenance requirements of animals, at least for part of the year. This occurs, for example, in some mountainous regions and in the dry tropicswhere the grazing is also sometimes very degraded. Thus, in extensive animal production systems in the dry areas of Africa, it is generallye stimated that ligneous materials contribute up to 90% of production and account for 40-50% of the total available feed. Such figures illustrate the existing and urgent need not only for better knowledge but also for better use of such potential, particularly in the context of environmental degradation which is affecting our planet. On the other ha nd, in the humid tropics of Latin America, the South-cast Asia and Africa, foddersfrom trees and shrubs from leguminous species - are beginning to be utilized more dietary nitrogen supplements for ruminants. In this respect, new a significant move to look for new sources of protein from shrubs. However, given the increasing demand for forage and availability of low quality basal feed materials which require protein supplementation, high protein fodders from leguminous trees and shrubs could have a much more significant role in animal feeding systems throughout the developing world. In this respect, there is a need for more research to develop technically viable solutions. These solutions must also be economically and socially acceptable; they must preserve natural resources and protect the environment. In other words, the challenge is the sustainable development of fodder trees and shrubs.........
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Livestock breeds of China 1984
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    This book gives a brief account of the distribution of livestock in various regions of China, as well as the breed characteristics developed under different ecological conditions. An attempt is made to illustrate the influence on breed formation of environmental factors, in addition to those of genetics and selection. The livestock breeds enumerated Include 14 horse, 2 camel, 14 yellow cattle, 4 dairy and milk/meat dual-purpose cattle, 8 water buffalo (types), 6 yak (types), 13 sheep, 18 goat an d 15 swine. An understanding of animal ecology will undoubtedly guide plans for regionalitzation of livestock In our country. It is also pointed out that our rich breed resources provide us with genetic material of great value in animal breeding. our swine breeds Influenced the improvement or formation of some foreign breeds In the past, and may have even more influence In the future, though this may not be foreseen at present. We should, therefore, promptly study breed characteristics, and wo rk on the Investigation, protection, selection, development and utilization of these valuable resources. The present work is not merely an English translation of the author's recent book, published in Chinese In 1980. It is greatly expanded, and a new chapter on Goat Breeds has been added. Some revisions and necessary corrections have been wde and more illustrations added to ensure that readers will more easily obtain a general idea of the ecological characteristics of livestock breeds in Chin a. Attempts made here to Illustrate the relationship between our livestock breeds and their environments are restricted by the knowledge of the author and the reference data available. This book is just a beginning, and it is earnestly hoped that further systematic and Intensive studies in the field of animal ecology will be made by others.

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