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Data Collection and Methodology








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    Book (series)
    Monitoring incidental catch of vulnerable species in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea: Methodology for data collection 2019
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    Bycatch – a term widely used to refer to the part of catch unintentionally captured during a fishing operation, in addition to target species, and consisting of discards and incidental catches of vulnerable species – is considered one of the most important threats to the profitability and sustainability of fisheries, as well as to the conservation of the marine environment and ecosystems. In the Mediterranean, studies on the incidental catch of vulnerable species cover only a small portion of the total fishing activity. In addition, there are several important knowledge gaps for many types of fishing gear, and several countries and/or subregions, as well as on temporal scales, and only a few measures are in place that address the protection of vulnerable species. Monitoring programmes and surveys on incidental catches, which follow a harmonized methodology allowing for results to be compared across subregions, are necessary to improve knowledge on the issue and to subsequently support the identification of potential mitigation methods and tools, and relevant management measures. This publication and the methodology contained herein aim to provide a framework for the development and implementation of an efficient, standardized data collection and monitoring system for all vulnerable species encountered in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, namely elasmobranchs, marine mammals, seabirds, sea turtles, and macrobenthic invertebrates.
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    Book (series)
    Methodological Proposal for Monitoring SDG Target 12.3. Sub-Indicator 12.3.1.a The Food Loss Index Design, Data Collection Methods and Challenges
    SDG 12.3.1: Global Food Loss Index
    2019
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    This paper delves into the rationale of the Food Loss Index, presenting the various elements of its methodology. It contains a set of definitional framework and scope of the index, it illustrates the rationale for estimating losses as the percentage of food quantities removed from the supply chain. The final section of the paper summarizes FAO’s approach to food loss data.
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    Book (series)
    Monitoring discards in Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries: methodology for data collection 2019
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    Discards – the part of the catch that is not retained on board, which may include target species or any other (commercial and non-commercial) species that are returned at sea dead or alive – usually result in a reduction of harvesting opportunities and may have negative consequences on the stocks, ecosystems and the marine environment. In the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, studies on discards only cover a small portion of the total fishing activities and discard rates are often poorly estimated or totally unknown. Information is lacking for many types of fishing gear, countries and GFCM subregions, and most available studies only cover relatively short periods and small areas. Discards therefore represent a major source of uncertainty about the actual fishing mortality rates of stocks. These knowledge gaps highlight the need to expand discard monitoring programmes and standardize practices, so to assess discards appropriately and address their important impacts. This publication and the methodology discussed herein aim to provide a framework for the development and implementation of an efficient, standardized data collection and monitoring system for discards through on-board observations, questionnaires at landing sites and self-sampling activities. It ensures minimum common standards for the collection of discards data and allows for repeatability and comparisons among fisheries across the region, thus offering a harmonized basis of knowledge, information and evidence for decision-making.

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